American Journal of Scientific Research

Issue 102
June, 2014

An Accurate Power Model for Mesh-Based Networks-On-Chip
Mohammad Fazilaty and Majid Pourahmadi

Networks-on-Chip (NoC) has been proposed as a solution for addressing the design challenges of future high performance nanoscale architectures. Innovative system level performance models are required for designing NoC based architectures. Power dissipation Issues have grown to such importance that they now constrain attainable performance. Power efficiency is one of the most important concerns in NoC architecture design. If NoCs are to be accepted, their full power implications need to be known. Moreover, these power characteristics must be accurately understood across the large possible design space of NoCs. In this paper we propose a novel approach in high level power modeling based on NoC design parameters such as: size of network, packets size, number of virtual channels in a physical channel and etc, for mesh-based topologies. While there is some time consuming power simulators for calculating power based on detailed estimation of capacitance, it would have been easier to estimate power based on analytical models.
Keyword: Networks on Chip, Mesh-Based, Power, Power Budget.
Jel Classification: Integrated Circuits.

A Novel Method on Optimal Urban Waste Management using Fuzzy Method
Amirhossein Ashouri and Bahareh Sadhezari

Nowadays, solid waste is one of main environmental problems because of no effective waste management system, rapid population growth and increasing waste. Quantity of generated waste is one of the effective parameter on planning, design and implementation of waste management systems. This article aims to present a general model of optimal urban waste management using novel strategies and tools. Initial concepts and all recent methods in this field as well as methods to estimate waste using neural network in this research. Then, optimization the sitting waste landfill of fuzzy method will be discussed. Conclusion and resources are end section in this research.
Keywords: Waste management system, Multi-criteria decision-making, Fuzzy logic, Neural Network.

Evaluating the Impact of Increasing Land-use Intensity in Changing Occupancy of Fields and Vitality of Neighborhoods (Case Study of: Narmak Neighborhood in Tehran)

Nasim Hasanimianroudi

Along with developments in urban textures in the contemporary time and replacing new urban texture instead of old urban places, the role and place of urban neighborhoods is very important. In today’s neighborhoods social interaction of inhabitants is very little and these places do not have vitality and dynamicity of the old neighborhoods places. Though this issue is the result of type and method of life, but lack of necessary places for forming these interactions is considered a very influential factor. To evaluate the role of neighborhoods fields on vitality of the neighborhoods and measuring vitality in Narmak neighborhoods 130 questionnaire were completed by neighborhoods inhabitants to evaluate and analyze the condition of indexes and influential criteria in the current conditions. Finally to test the hypothesis that shows relationship between increasing land-use intensity and changing occupancy fields Spearman correlative coefficient was used. According to the result of this study what is regarded as a main complex and threat in this issue is latest housing constructions in the Narmak neighborhood that challenged two issues of sustainable capacities and optimal land-use in the neighborhood faced many challenges. Narmak neighborhood reached threshold of housing and population capacities and whenever the issue of supervision and management is neglected, principles and criteria that warrantees vitality will be eliminated.
Keywords: Land-use intensity, Vitality, Narmak, Fields.

"The Relationship between Personality Type and Test Anxiety and its Effect on Achievement"

Nashat Aub Hassouneh and Sameer Ailabouni

This study aimed at Exploring the relationship between personality type and test anxiety and the effect of both on achievement as well as the study of each of the following variables: (sex, accumulative average, study year, and college) test anxiety and personality type for Irbid National University students. The sample included (500) male and female students selected from Humanities and Science colleges. The study used (Friedman & Bendas, 1997) scale to measure test anxiety, as for personality type (Eysenk Personality Inventory, 1974)(EPI) list were used. The study conclusions indicated a negative statistically insignificant relation between personality type and test anxiety, and a positive statistically insignificant relation between personality type and achievement. It also showed a negative statistical significant relation between test anxiety and achievement. The findings also indicated the existence of interaction between personality type and test anxiety on achievement. However, it did not reflect this effect for the personality solo on achievement. The study also exposed the lack of statistical significant differences in the level of test anxiety due to the variables of (sex, study year, and college) while, in the case of the level of the test anxiety these statistical significant differences were showed due to the variation of the (accumulative average) between the two categories (category less than %68) and (category more than %85) and for the favor of average category (more than %85). Finally, the results indicated insignificant statistical differences in personality type due to the variables of (sex, study year, and average) however. It exposed the existence of statistical significant differences in personality type due to the variable of (college) between the Science and Humanities, and for the favor of the colleges of science.
Keywords: Personality type, Test anxiety, Academical achievement.

The Effectiveness of using (KWL) Strategy on Level of Academic Achievement for "Braille “ Method Among Higher Diploma of Special Education Students' of Visual Disability at King Abdul Aziz University

Shaden Khalil Elewat and Nadia Samih Salti

The study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of (K.W.L) strategy on the achievement of students of visual disability at King Abdul-Aziz University. The study sample consists of (30) female students (15) in the experimental group and (15) in the control group. The experimental group received instructions in (K.W.L) strategy for six weeks. Previous and post- tests were processed to measure achievement of the students for both groups. Results showed that there was a significant difference between the two groups in favor of the experimental group. - There were no significant differences for the interaction between group and ability’s rate on post- test. - There were no significant differences for the interaction between group and accumulative rate.
Keywords: (K.W.L) - Braille Method.

Habits of Mind among the Students of Isra Private University in Jordan and their Relationship to the Ability to Solve Problems

Abdul Rauf Yamani

This study aimed to identify the level of exercise habits of mind among the students of Isra Private University in Jordan and its relationship to the ability to solve problems they have. The study sample consisted of 390 male and female students were selected in cluster randomized sample from Isra Private University in Amman, Jordan, during the first semester of the academic year 2013/2014 AD. To achieve the objectives of the study were develop a measure of the habits of the mind, it has consisted of 33 items distributed on six habits of mind are: persisting, and managing impulsivity, thinking flexibly, thinking about your thinking (Metacognition), and questioning and posing problems, and applying past knowledge to new situations, and the measure of the ability to solve problems that put its original image (Heppner & Petersen, 1982) and the translator into Arabic by Jerwan (1986). It has consisted of (22) items distributed on four areas: are: the general trend of the solution, and evaluate the solution, and generate alternatives for resolve, and gathering information. The results of the study revealed that the level of practice among the students of Isra Private University of Jordan to the habits of mind came primarily high, and the field " Applying past knowledge to new situations " was in the first place, while the area of " Thinking about your thinking (Metacognition)" in the last rank, the results also revealed that the level of ability to solve problems among the students of Isra Private University, Jordan came high, the field of "Evaluation of the solution," was in first place, while the field of "generating alternatives for resolve " ranked last. The results also revealed the presence of statistically significant differences in the level of the habits of mind due to the effect of gender , and differences in favor of females, and no statistically significant differences attributable to the effect of the college, and the presence of statistically significant differences due to the effect of the achievement, and the differences were for the benefit of all of the excellent and very good in the total score of the habits of mind. The findings also revealed the existence of statistically significant differences attributable to the effect of gender, and the differences were in favor of females, and no statistically significant differences attributable to the effect of the college, and no statistically significant differences attributable to the effect of achievement. Finally, the results revealed a positive correlation statistically significant among the level of practice the students of Isra Private University of Jordan to the habits of the mind and the level of ability to solve problems they have.
Keywords: Habits of mind, the ability to solve problems, Isra Private University Students.

Performance Evaluation of VLIW and Superscalar Processors on DSP and Multimedia Workloads
Mutaz Al-Tarawneh

This paper provides a quantitative evaluation of the performance of Very Long Instruction Word (VLIW) and Superscalar (SS) processors on Digital Signal Processing (DSP) and Multimedia applications. The VLIW configuration has been evaluated using Trimaran, an integrated compilation and performance monitoring infrastructure, while the Superscalar architecture has been evaluated using Simplescalar, a suite that provides both detailed and high- performance simulation environment of modern microprocessors, on a set of DSP and Multimedia benchmarks. Our benchmark suite includes both kernels and applications. The performance monitoring results on Trimaran and Simplescalar have been used to compare the Instruction-Level Parallelism (ILP) achieved by running the chosen benchmarks on candidate processor architectures. In comparison to the Superscalar processor, the VLIW processor exhibits a speedup range of 1.18 to 2.44 on Kernels. On the other hand, the Superscalar processor shows a higher performance on some control-intensive applications with a speedup range of 1.15 to 1.33 as compared to the VLIW processor. The benchmarks are seen to contain a large amount of parallelism. Out-of-Order execution and branch prediction have been observed to be extremely important to exploit such parallelism in Multimedia applications.
Keywords: DSP, Multimedia, VLIW, Superscalar, Performance, ILP.

Objectivity of Moral in Kant`s Viewpoint and its Educational Inspiration

Azizallah Rahmaniasl, Sayedhashem Golestani and Alireza Yousefy

Immanuel Kant is a philosopher whose philosophical system has greatly affected the philosophical schools and the philosophers after him. His moral theory also following his other theories created many changes in the philosophy domain making his prominence. But, the ethical system Kant established in his philosophy has some significant flaws and ambiguities which cannot degrade its value however. The concept of “image of the world” includes many philosophical definitions and Kantian concept is one of them undoubtedly indicating the specific imaginations about the world. We can interpret the structure of the world`s phenomena based on an infrastructure. Kant has highly considered ethics in his three critiques. In his second critiques, ethics is a result of practical reason and it should be redisplayed objectively resulted in the training issue. In addition to examining the training in ethics, Kant had some studies regarding the training separately. This paper aims to present a general view of Kantian ethics and refer to its main points, and investigate the fact that how the moral can achieve to objectivity as well as how the objectivity of moral can create training inspirations.
Keywords: Objectivity of moral, Deontological ethics, Categorical imperative, Structuralism, Education.

The Comparison between Epistemology of Kantian Ethics and Ethics of Martyr Motahari

Azizallah Rahmaniasl and Sayedhashem Golestani

Epistemology is a category of ethics philosophy regarding the moral interpretations. Scholars are divided into Cognitivism and Non Cognitivism in this category. Mokhtar believes that the moral interpretations are placed in the non cognitive category due to the fact that they do not predicate the reality. There have been many proponents and opponents for Kantian ethics so far falling into two main categories: 1. Deontologism resulted from the proponents’ opinions and many authorities such as Rawls, Sir David Ross and Prichard believe in this category. In this moral theory, the categorical imperatives with respect to their results are necessary to do for human and this necessity is within the imperatives itself. 2. Teleologism which is against Kantian ethics and backs to Aristotle. Mill and Bentham are of the authorities of this view supporting the theory of Utilitarianism. The second part of the paper i.e. epistemology of the ethics of Motahari master discuss about the recognition of Motahari master of the moral philosophy. He provided the necessities of establishing a certain moral ethics and presented them in his lectures and writings. The present paper will examine the epistemology of Kantian ethics first and then consider the epistemology of the ethics of Motahari master. Finally, Kantian ethics and Islam, the inherent perceptions of Kant and Motahari master, and Motahari master`s critiques of Kantian ethics will be compared.
Keywords: Comparative philosophy, epistemology, Kantian ethics, ethics of martyr Motahari, good and bad.

Study the Evolution of Open Space in the Past to the Present Day, with Emphasis on the Body and Function of the Tehran Sabzeh Meydan
Nasim Hasanimianroudi

Inside and sometimes on the sideline of some market can be seen spaces in where markets are held daily or periodical. The most appropriate place for vendors that are not considered as an integral and essential components of the market,With certain exceptions, such as the city of Yazd and Kerman, and naghshe Jahan in Esfehan. However, most of these fields to the growing need in the market for land slowly give their place to the market utilities. Like Tehran Sabzeh Meydan, which its name is reminded and kashan lArge square is entirely gone (Jabbari, 1379,49). We know that each great period of history crystallized in shaping contemporary modern new center of the capital , such as the Sabzeh Meydan between Market and the Arg in the Qajar era, Topkhaneh at the time of Reza Shah, ferdowsi square, Takhte Jamshid Street and Abbas Abad hill at the time of Mohammad reza Shah (Adl, Orkad,236,1375). Analysis of the characteristics of such locations is unavoidable and for following reasons it is essential: • Identity and sense of place within a commercial and cultural core of the old town Recovery of spatial patterns in the old tissue that had been removed due to inappropriate incremental extensions • Review of gradual progress made in lArge-scale urban change and its impact on the design and modeling of the appropriate effects • A significant interaction between elements within the whole value range to become interconnected and coherent
Keywords: Urban open spaces, Market, Sabzehmeydan.