American Journal of Scientific Research

Issue 103
September, 2014

Determine the Appropriate Location of Parks and Urban Green Space by using Analytical Hierarchy Process (Case Study: 9 District of Mashhad Metropolitan)
Hamid Majedi and Maryam Ebrahimpour

Today, urbanism phenomenon is growing. Analyzing of suitable location and geographic distribution for green spaces is very important in urban future. Selection of location for parks and urban green spaces is complex process that not only needs great technique skills but also; require physical, economic, social and environmental needs. So we should use from multi tools to making decision such as: Geographic Information Systems (GIS) & Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP).
This paper was done in order to suitable selection of urban green spaces. It is applied and the method of research is analysis- descriptive. We study Mashhad metropolitan (second metropolitan) t based on five indicators such as: Demographic, physical, economic, natural and pollution also we use (GIS) software and (AHP) process. In order to, at first were collected local data (plans) and then was done GIS ready also was used overly method in GIS for analyzing information. After that have been given appropriate weight for each indicator according to value and important of green space location. At finally was prepared appropriate model for developing of green spaces from overlapping the same layers. The results of this research show that green spaces of 9 district isn't appropriate distribution also the green spaces isn't enough for population needs in future.
Keyword: Urban green space, Geographic Information Systems (GIS), Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP)

Reliability Analysis of Multi-Gate MOSFETs
Ziyad Ahmed Al Tarawneh

The continuous scaling of classical CMOS features has led to a large reduction in the node capacitances of VLSI circuits. As a result, a small amount of charge deposited by a radiation strike is sufficient to cause an single event upset at the node. Moreover, the increased clock frequency and the reduced supply voltage requirement also aggravate the tolerance of the circuits to SEUs. After we have reached the end of the technology road-map for the conventional CMOS, multiple gate MOSFETs (MuGFETs), will almost certainly take up the baton. This promising solution manifests a superior control of short-channel effects, resulting from an improved electrostatic coupling between the conduction channel and the surrounding gate electrode. In this paper, the influence of the key design parameters of a multiple gate MOSFET on soft error robustness of an inverter circuit has been investigated. It was found that the sensitivity of a node to a single event upset can be reduced by increasing the rate of removal of the charge collected at a node by a particle strike. For instance, this can be done by increasing the effective width of the devices and the operating voltage.
Keywords: MuGFETs, Soft Error, Single Event Upset, Reliability.

Assessment of Effective Key Indicators in Design of Mega Structures
Salman Hasanvand, Mohammad Amin Khojasteh Ghamari and Shiva Sadat Hosseini Tabrizi

High-rise residential buildings in particular, have associated with social effects of environment. Many experts believe that a concern there is the concern about the social effects – psychological on living in high-rise buildings, while may be high-rise housing for single people and couples desirable, but may be inappropriate for a family with more population and household size. Many sociologists believe that the context of high buildings can cause confinement and fear of tight spaces and enclosed with a dilemma create for residents. Important factors must be remembered before making any decision, Pay to this point that is proceeding where and what type of building construction? How the indicators of household and future residents of culture? Definitely are constructed tall buildings with residential users in urban areas. so is important understanding the role of tall buildings in urban areas, taking into account social, economic and physical and is identified and evaluated the objective is to Such buildings by residents as well as the environmental conditions before any plan. Cultural factors, psychological, social and economic are components of the human character; as tall buildings and its concerned issues are in a close relationship with humans, so these factors play an essential role in creating a favorable environment to play in these buildings. Methodology of the study is descriptive - analytical so that initially, identify structures involved in the process giant and then are analyzed the criteria mega structures, finally after exploring the role of tall buildings in the urban landscape and evaluation of key metrics, are presented energy and environmental design strategies in the field of construction up to design better structures by taking the desired metrics.
Keywords: high-rise building, environmental design, urban landscape, criteria

Investigating the Determination of Tendency toward Entrepreneurship among University Students
Parvaneh Gelard, Majid Ghanbarinejad Esfaghan Sari and Mahdi Rahemi

Societies' rapid changings and the need to proactively adapt to the changings, not only increased the value of entrepreneurs in world's economic activities, but also increased the importance of entrepreneurship and its development more than ever. The present study aims to investigate the determinants of tendency toward entrepreneurship among university students. The population comprises the M.A students of Islamic Azad University-Rasht branch. To select samples, stratified random sampling has been used. Questionnaire is used as a means of collecting data and for analyzing data and assessing hypotheses, the structural equation modeling approach is applied. The present study is survey- descriptive. In terms of objective, it's applicable. The results suggest that perceived competence, efficacy and the approach toward entrepreneurial action are among effective factors of tendency toward entrepreneurship among students.

The Affect of Corporate Social Responsibility on Relation Quality with Customers
Mahabbat A. Mammadov, Hosein Parham, Elshad Yousefov and Vahideh Fatorechi

Companies' Social Responsibility has been the sensitive issue and being attended in recent years. These days, Companies' Social Responsibilities have the wide concept than the past activities. Companies' Social Responsibility includes the collection of activities which the capital and economic foundation owners do voluntary as an affective and suitable member in a society. In real, the Companies' Social Responsibility is an approach for business which views the Social Responsibility of an organization on a society either internal or external, and its main goal is to provide the total parts including public, private and volunteers for cooperating with together. The population of this study is the manufacturing firms in Tabriz. The statistical samples were specified with regard to the relationship of samples in limited societies; that is, 386 companies. In this research, the structural equation modeling techniques method was utilized to analyze the data. The results show that E csr and L csr have the significant and positive effect on customers' commitment, trust and satisfaction. P csr and Et csr do not have any effect on satisfaction and trust but it has positive and significant effect on customer's commitment in a company. So, for studying the impact of CSR on customer's relationship quality, the simple regression was used. Coefficient of determination is 0.543.
Keywords: Relation Quality with customers Corporate Social Responsibility) Economic Corporate social Responsibility Legal Corporate social responsibility, Ethical Corporate social responsibility, Philanthropic Corporate social responsibility

Translation Competence of Iranian Students Majoring in English Translation: A Write Aloud Protocol
Susan Taghipour and Mehrdad Amiri

Testing pragmatic competence is a very hard endeavor requiring a lot of time and energy. Various ways have been worked out to measure pragmatic knowledge of second language learners (see Hudson, et al, 1995, Ymashita, 1996, and Jianda, 2007). The present study has sought the pragmatic knowledge of Iranian second language learners majoring in English translation through "write aloud protocol" which was developed by the researchers. Write aloud protocol is a version of think aloud protocol in which the learner or the subject writes down the mental processes he is going through while translating a written text. 100 senior English learners majoring in English Translation in Payam Nour University were given a TOEFL test. The ones with one standard deviation below and above the mean were selected and asked to take part in the research project. The participants (25 girls and 25 boys) were trained how to present write aloud protocols. Then they were asked to translate a selected paragraph of any material they liked from NEWS WEEK and NEW YORK TIMES magazines or the text at the similar levels of difficulty which were examined against FOG readability formula with upper intermediate level of difficulty and complexity (about 60).The participants were asked to keep records of their first drafts including corrections, crosses, and developmental stages of their work up to the fair draft. They were also asked to provide the researchers with the write aloud protocols in Persian and in their own handwritings. The data were collected through the emails of the subjects and then they were categorized and analyzed. The results of the analyses revealed that the subjects mostly failed to understand the texts when a significant cultural point or a social aspect of life of the English world appeared in the texts. The study also revealed that the problem of pragmatic knowledge is a controversial issue for the EFL learners and requires more qualitative and quantitative research to be minimized.

An Analysis of Unsustanability of Urban Development in Informal Settlements of Metropolis (Case Study of Tabriz)
Simindokht Nematollahi

Urban mainly grow by migration of rural population in developing country, and then result unplanned and informal growth spesially in metropolises. The unbalanced growth cause to unsustanability and appear in social and spatial discrimination, poverty, informal settelment and occupation, setteling in high risk areas, low environmental and residental quality and the other consequences.
Tabriz, one of the Irans metropolises, had been proposed as the destination of emigration in north-west region befor the beginning of the development planning. The migrated population pushed and setteled on suburbs and unsustainable grounds with high steeps, because they had been unable for the charge of land price and not match in terms of social-economical aspects. House construction with poor materials and unstable structures, poverty and livelihood dependent on unstable jobs, existing of the high natural risk like earthquake and landslide, high growth rate of the population, inappropriate network in informal settelments and so on would be inevitable as long as the emingration continues. This issue brings up necessity of paying attention to sustability indexes in planning of informal settelments.
Therfore, the purpose of the article would be necessity of paying attention to informal settelments with special emphasis on sustability indexes in development planning and urban management.
Surveying, analysis, and planning about moving population in interior spaces of country and metropolises that cause to formation of informal settlements in marginal area, become main program for many of less-developed countries that encounter with high population growth and movements to informal settlements. Urban expansion is harmful for environment and habitants when there is no regularity, will, and tools in all decision taking hierarchy, no determination of speculation. Some countries employ the latest sustainable and human developments approaches to prevent such problems, supply minimum necessities and services forwarding to achieve urban sustainable developments with a special emphasis on endogenous development strategies. However the others paying no attention to informal settlements and their spatial problems, and not only don’t try to utilize from global useful experiences, but they don’t learn from themselves former experiences and don’t move along correcting their functions.

An Ideological Analysis on “Grapes of Wrath”, Novel and its two Translations
Elahe Khajooiy Mirzade

The term "discourse analysis" first used by Zellig Harris in 1952 to refer to the manifestation of formal regularities across sentences in combination. Translation and interpreting studies have benefited considerably from the application of discourse analysis to the study of cross-cultural communication. In this domain of discourse, translators have thus focused on the constraints placed on the translation process by the sociocultural content of communication. This study attempts to reveal the ideological perspective of translator through “critical discourse analysis” in different periods, before and after Islamic revolution in Iran. The theoretical framework of this study is Farzane Farahzad’s framework (2008) which is based on Norman Fairclough’s model. The main aim of this thesis is to work out a framework of CDA, apply the framework for analysis of ST and TTS and to analyze the translator’s choices in the TT on the text linguistic level. Furthermore, it deals with causes and effects that give rise to happen so. This study determines the ideological aspects dominated that period. This research is causal-comparative research focusing the translation in a diachronic period. This strategy is useful for detecting hidden ideology related to translation for raising awareness of the translators of such issue.
Keywords: discourse analysis, formal regularities, ideological perspective, critical discourse analysis, Farahzad’s framework (2008).

Using SWOT Analysis for Evaluating the Course Schedule System for the College of Home Economics at King Abdul Aziz University
Samira Hashim Ahmed Baroum

This study aims at evaluating the academic program of the housekeeping economy by utilization of SWOT Model Analysis for identifying adequacy of weekly syllabuses credit hours number as well as specifying appropriate distribution of credit hours for each course on time unit at the academic program based on the curriculum’s quality (Theoretical / practical / applied) during the week in addition to finding out adequacy of selected time to each lecture according to the number and the quality of the female students enrolled in each course for (inside / outside) the scientific department to achieve the targeted learning outputs.
Importance of the study focuses on its findings in discussing the relationship between nature of the academic syllabuses and the number and quality of the female students, besides the specified time for teaching each course in housekeeping economy departments at the academic program as the study included where the strength aspects in accordance with SWOT Analysis is: Adequacy of the credit hours for all the syllabuses of the programs at the scientific departments in undergraduate Faculty of Housekeeping Economy whereas, internal design of syllabus at the residential management department and the concerned institutions is distinguished by developing its academic program to be similar to the international ones ; but its weaknesses is not suitable for distribution of credit hours - for both compulsory or selective courses - weekly time unit for approximately 20% of the courses offered at the Faculty of Housekeeping economy, Scientific Departments separately, whether from scientific theoretical, or applied departments along with lack of adequate preparation of the female students in one division of the devoted time to lecture, whether these courses are required or selective, as the scientific departments vary in this regard. The study also indicated inadequacy of the quality of the female students whether (inside / outside the department) enrolled in (required or selective) courses for the devoted time to lecture at the scientific departments.
The study also recommended: Modifying of the used mechanism for preparing a course program at the Faculty of Housekeeping Economy, besides, considering the nature of the courses in each scientific department, along with conducting a questionnaire about the views of female students regarding about how they benefit from the Housekeeping Economy curriculum.
Keywords: Analysis of SWOT / Course program /Weekly Time Unit, the University Education

Septoplasty in Children - Long Term Follow up of 60 Cases
Jaafer Al-Hassani

Surgery of nasal septum has long been discouraged in the pediatric population, concerns about growth & development of the nose has led surgeons to adopt an extremely cautious attitude toward the correction of nasal septal deformity in children. More recently, studies have shown that with proper preservation of the septal cartilage, surgery can be safely undertaken in this area. (1)
Frequently, exposure to the nasal septum is limited in small children due to the size of nasal vestibule (2)
The aim is to report our experience with nasal septal deviation in pediatric population. The functional and anatomical results of conservative septoplasty were very satisfactory in all children who were operated on. There were neither severe sagging deformities nor retraction of the collumella. Only one child required re-operation. Follow up till the age of 18, none of them had mid-facial retardation.
Keywords: Septal deviation, conservative septoplasty, maxillary crest, Septoplasty in children