American Journal of Scientific Research

Issue 104
November, 2014

Genetic Transformation of Bread Wheat using Particle Bombardment Method
4-11
D. Iraqi, D.C. Tinak Ekom, M.N. Benchekroun, M.M. Ennaji, R. Abdelwahd, R. Mentag and S.M. Udupa

Abstract:
Development of a reliable genetic transformation protocol is necessary to facilitate genetic improvement of wheat. However, genetic transformation is varietal dependent, and not much work has been done for genetic transformation of Moroccan bread wheat cultivar. Here we report genetic transformation of Moroccan wheat cultivar ‘Marchouch’ using biolistic approach. Immature embryos were excited out from immature seeds collected 12-16 days post-anthesis and cultured on induction and maintenance medium (MS medium supplemented with amino acide Asp and solidifying agent 2.5 g l-1 phytagel). The embryos whose cells started rapid division were selected for subsequent transformation and bombarded with gold particles coated with plasmid pBY520 which contained the linked selectable marker/herbicide resistance bar (phosphinothricin acetyl transferase) gene (driven by cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter and the nopaline synthase nos terminator) and the barley HVA1 gene (driven by rice Act1 promoter and terminated by the potato protease inhibitor pin II). The bombarded embryos cultured on the same medium in the dark for 16 hours at 25 °C and subsequently transferred to the MS Asp medium without mannitol for a period of 4-5 days. The selection was carried out on MS Asp medium in the presence of PPT. The resistant calluses were transferred to the regeneration medium supplemented PPT. For rooting induction, the regenerated shoots were transferred in MS half-strength medium lacking hormones and supplemented with 3 mg l-1 of PPT. Leaf paint assay and PCR analysis confirmed presence of bar gene. 6.37%, transformation efficiency was obtained using this methodology.
Keyword: Biolistic, bar gene, Genetic transformation, Moroccan bread wheat, Plasmid pBY520
Abbreviations: ASP - Asparagin; CTAB - Cetyl trimethylammonium bromide; LB - Luria Bertani; MS - Murashige and Skoog; PPT - Phosphinothricin ; rpm - rotation per minute.


Effect of Genotypes and Culture Media on Embryogenic Callus Induction and Plantlet Regeneration from Immature Embryos of Durum Wheat
12-20
Najat Hakam, Sripada M. Udupa, Fatima Gaboun, Mohamed Ibriz, Rachid Mentag and Driss. Iraqi

Abstract:
Seven genotypes of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum.L. var.durum) were cultured to identify an efficient medium for induction of embryogenic callus formation from immature embryos for biolistic and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation.Plant regeneration frequencies from cultures derived from mature embryos are generally low.The immature embryos were placed in petri dishes containing different induction media (M1, M2, M3, M4 and M5). based on MS media which differed with respect to concentrations of plant hormones (2,4-D and BA), vitamins, sucrose, maltose, L-asparagine, and solidifying agents.
All the media induced embryogenic callus, except, the medium 2, which produced brown callus in all the varieties. M3 medium induced very low frequency of embryogenic callus. However, the embryogenic callus derived from these media gave low regeneration frequency, when cultured on the regeneration medium, except for the M3. The M3 media was further amended with by additions of vitamins, sucrose and 2,4-D with different combinations and generated 5 additional media (M3a to M3f).
However, a significant effect of variety, medium and variety x medium interaction were observed for callus induction and regeneration.
Keywords: Durum wheat, somatic embryogenesis, immature embryo, genetic transformation


Using Sound-by-Sound Blending Technique for Teaching Phonemic Awareness
21-30
Manar Al Momani

Abstract:
This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of using Sound-by-Sound technique on English language students' phonemic awareness at Al Zaytoonah University, and also aimed to investigate the effect of gender, year, and GPA on the point of view of students.
The study sample consisted of 90 students 48 males and 42 females from Al Zaytoonah University. Means and standard deviations and t-test were used to analyze the results.
The results showed that there were statistically significant differences in the views of the students on the effectiveness of Sound-by-Sound technique on English language students' phonemic awareness, also showed a statistically significant differences at the level of significance (α ≥ 0,05) in their views due to the gender variable, as there are statistically significant differences at the level of significance (α ≥ 0,05) in their views due to the year variable, and results also showed the existence of clear statistically significant differences in the views of the students on the effectiveness of Sound-by-Sound technique on students' phonemic awareness due to the general point average of the students (GPA).
Keywords: Sound-by-Sound Blending Technique


The Level of Application of the Learning Organization and Constraints in Moderate Educational Administration in Accordance with Senge Model in Saudi Arabia
31-42
Najat Mohammad Al Saigh

Abstract:
The purpose of this study is to investigate the level of application of the learning organization and constraints in Moderate Educational Administration in accordance with Senge Model in Saudi Arabia from female supervisors' perspectives, and also to investigate the effect of scientific qualification, experience, major, and city on supervisors' perspectives.
The study sample consisted of 120 supervisors from the Moderate Educational Administration. Means and standard deviations and t-test were used to analyze the results.
The results showed that there were statistically significant differences in the perspectives of the supervisors on the level of application of the learning organization and constraints in Moderate Educational Administration in accordance with Senge Model in Saudi Arabia, it also showed a statistically significant differences at the level of significance (&aplha; ≥ 0,05) in their perspectives attributed to the scientific qualification, as there are statistically significant differences at the level of significance (α ≥ 0,05) in their views attributed to experience, and results also showed the existence of clear statistically significant differences in the supervisors perspectives towards the level of application of the learning organization and constraints in Moderate Educational Administration in accordance with Senge Model due to major and city variables.
Keywords: supervisors, learning organization, Senge Model


Assessment of Job Assignments of Work-Study Students, Covenant University, Ota, South-West Nigeria
43-53
Dare Ojo, Omonijo, Akinrole Olumuyiwa, Oludayo, Onyekwere Oliver Chizaram, Uche and Omolola Abidemi, Rotimi

Abstract:
This study investigated: (i) the modality used to assign jobs to Work-Study students, (ii) nature of jobs assigned to Work-Study students, (iii) the age difference of Work-Study students, (iv) gender difference of Work-Study students, (v) if a significant relationship exists between the academic level of Work-Study students and job performance. In collecting its data, questionnaire was administered to 91 respondents. Percentage was used to analyse the responses obtained in respect of the research questions. Moreover, the study employed ANOVA and T-test to test the hypothesis formulated for the study. The result of the investigation revealed that a significant relationship exists between the academic level of Work-Study students and job performance @ 1 percent level of significance. Moreover, the result indicated that each student programme of study was used as a modality for assigning jobs to students. Furthermore, it equally revealed that female students participated more in the programme than their male counterparts.
Keywords: Assessment, job assignments, Work-Study Students


Ad Hoc Network & Black Hole - Threat and Solution
54-58
Tariq Ahamad and Abdullah Aljumah

Abstract:
An ad hoc network is a temporary network for a specified work. Even after ensuring security, there are many other security threats that resists its growth and uses. Network layer is little unprotected for these types of networks because of the security vulnerabilities in routing protocols and black hole is one such threat and is a DoS attack. Black hole is a place in network where data packets are discarded without informing the source or destination The intruders utilize the loophole to carry out their malicious behaviors because the route discovery process is necessary and inevitable. Due to its nature, the attack makes the source node send all the data packets to a Black-hole node that ends up dropping all the packets. In this research article, we are trying to highlight some drawbacks in some existing security techniques and proposing a solution to that existing problem.
Keywords: Black Hole, Ad Hoc Network, DoS.


Effectiveness of Behavioral Therapy-Based Program in Treating A Female Student from Involuntary Urination (Nocturnal Enuresis) and the Effect of this on Optimism and Academic Achievement (Case Study)
59-69
Ahmad Abdellatif Abderrahman Abu As'ad

Abstract:
The current research aimed to identify the effect of a behavioral cognitive program on treating a female student from involuntary urination (Nocturnal enuresis) and to identify its effect on both optimism and academic achievement. The case study was conducted on 11 years female student and was implemented during a whole academic semester through which the student received a counseling program based on a specific time schedule and was implemented with the assistance of the school counselor, the parents, and two female teachers in one of mu'tah schools. The follow up indicated that the female student has overcome involuntary urination, and at the same time, her achievement has increased from medium to good, in addition to an increase in her optimism from a medium level into high one. The study recommended with utilizing the counseling program used in this study in helping female students from involuntary urination.
Keywords: Involuntary Urination, Optimism, Academic Achievement, Case Study.


A Modified Flexible Data Encryption Standard Algorithm
70-85
Essam M. Ramzy Hamed and Mohammad Hosam Sedky

Abstract:
This paper proposed flexible, advanced DES algorithms that solve many drawbacks in the DES algorithm. First, they increase the key size to 224 bits instead of 56 bits (the main weakness of DES) that make the Brute-Force attack effect impossible or takes very large number of years for exhaustive key search. Second, they increase the block size of the plain text messages from 64 bits to be 256 bits without increasing the simulation time. Last, the most important contributions of the proposed algorithms are: 1) they change the number of rounds from fixed number in DES (16 rounds) to dynamic number (N) that will be selected as a variable input number by the user according to the data sensitivity level he wants. Therefore, N sets the sub-keys numbers to be dynamic too. This makes the brute force attack on the proposed algorithms has no effect. 2) The algorithms codes accept any language as the plain text input messages and the secret key too. They accept the plain text message and the key to be written with any language, like English, Russian, Arabic, .etc. The importance of this modification is encouraged using any language in the applications that deal with information needed to be in certain language; like the secured e-voting application.
Keywords: Cryptography, Feistel cipher, Symmetric key, Data Encryption Standard (DES), Symmetric block Cipher, Advanced Encryption standard (AES), Key length, block size, and Advanced Data Encryption Standard (ADES)


Comparison of the Optical Properties of the Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon Deposited by Sputtering and by Hg-Photo-CVD Techniques
86-94
Boko Aka, Abdelkrim Benmakhlouf, Gnandé Djétéli and Mohammed Chafik El Idrissi

Abstract:
The « Radiofrequency pulverization » (Sputtering) and the « Hg-Photo-CVD » are two techniques very used in the deposition of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin films.
We compare in this work these two techniques, by analyzing the evolution of the optical parameters of a-Si:H layers, according to the handling conditions : transmission spectra, refractive index, optical gap, energy of Urbach.
Keywords: Radiofrequency pulverization (Sputtering), Hg-photo-CVD, hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H), optical properties.

Study of Relationship between Organizational Trust and Development
95-109
Mostafa Kaviani, Hojjat Taheri Goodarzi and Mohamad Jafar Mahdian

Abstract:
One of the concerns of today’s organizations is the lack of mutual trust among directors and staff members that can be mostly identified in governmental organizations. Majority of these problems can be resolved by replacing traditional management systems instead of modern and systematic management mechanisms so that organizational stability and constancy can be accomplished. This research studies the relationship between organizational trust and development in service organizations. The researcher assumes one primary and five secondary hypotheses. The study can be categorized under descriptive, correlative and applied researches according to its objective, nature and methodology. The statistical population of the research constitutes of staff members of Alimoradian Hospital of Nahavand City, which provide health care services to more than 180 thousand citizens of the city. The statistical density of the population is 160, from which a sample of 113 is selected through utilization of systematic random sampling, Morgan’s Cohen’s and Krejcie’s table. Furthermore, Factor Analysis, Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient, One-Way variance Analysis (ANOVA), T-Test and Duncan Test are utilized to constitute data analysis of the study. For data compilation, the customized questionnaire of organizational trust, with 85.8% of Cronbach’s Alpha, and the customized questionnaire of organizational development, with 95.65% of Cronbach’s Alpha, are utilized. The total reliability of the questionnaires is appointed 95.5%. The results of prior studies indicate there is a correlative relationship between organizational development and organizational trust, creativity of staff members. The results of this research can be manifested as follows: 1- There is correlation between organizational trust and development. 2- There is correlation between competence and organizational development. 3- There is correlation between organizational development and stability. 4- There is correlation between organizational loyalty and development. 5- There is correlation between transparency and organizational development. 6- There is correlation between organizational development and veracity.
Keywords: Organizational Trust, Organizational Development, Transparency, Competence, Stability, Organizational Loyalty, Veracity