American Journal of Scientific Research

Issue 105
March, 2015

Discourse Intonation through Transcription as an Intensive Practice and itís Effects on Listening Comprehension among Iranian EFL Learners
Mitra Taghinezhad Vaskeh Mahalleh and Nader Asadi Aidinlou

This study attempts to explain how intensive practice of intonation in English as foreign language (EFL) affects the elementary level learners listening skill through transcription. In order to carry out the research, two classes of elementary level studentsí, who had been learning English in Alavi institute in Talesh, were selected randomly. Then two classes (40 subjects) were randomly assigned as experimental and control group, while each of them consists of 20 learners. To make assured about the homogeneity of two groups, before the treatment sessions in term of their general proficiency in listening English level they were given a pre-test. The result revealed that they were homogeneous. During research sessions the experimental group was given the treatment while control group did not receive any treatment. At the end of the treatment sessions two groups were post-tested by a standard listening test which was also used as the pre-test. The result showed that use of transcription practice had a significant effect on learnersí to improve their out put through the transcription.
Keyword: Transcription, Intonation, prominence, listening comprehension, Intensive practice

A Critique of the Anti-Social Elements in Jean-Paul Sartreís Humanistic Existentialism and Its Implications for Inter-Personal Relationship
Iwuagwu, Emmanuel Kelechi

This work is a critical review of the aspect of Jean-Paul Sartreís Humanistic Existentialism that deals with manís being-with-others. In Sartreís view as presented in this work manís relationship with others is that of conflict, marked with fear, shame, pride and alienation. The work started with a brief look at Sartreís background and what influenced his anti-social stance. It also made a brief elucidation of his humanistic existentialism before presenting his anti-social position. The work then questioned these views of Sartre which stand against reason and experience arguing that manís relationship with others also displays genuine love, friendship, co-operation, communion and solidarity. Reacting further to Sartreís views, the work exposed some unhealthy implications of his anti-social philosophy which includes the abolition of genuine community life, friendship, trust and co-operation. In conclusion the work rejected Sartreís anti-social theory which summarized manís life with others as hell manifested in conflict of transcendence. The work affirms that inspite of the apparent presence of tensions among men; manís life with others is also that of co-operation, filial love, genuine friendship, togetherness, harmony, mutual trust and communion.
Keywords: Sartreís Humanistic Existentialism, Being-for-others, Inter-personal Relationship, Anti-social elements.

Examining the Relationship between Organizational Structure and Corporate Entrepreneurship in Entrepreneurial Companies
Mahboobe Javadian Langroudi

From the early 1980s, with the concurrent rush to the entrepreneurship and the emphasis of companies on innovation to survive and compete with entrepreneurs who were seemingly more present in the market, caused to lead the entrepreneurial activities into companies. In this decade, with the sudden development of industry in the global competitive arena, the importance of entrepreneurial thinking and processes was stressed in the corporations and researchersí attention was focused on how to implant entrepreneurship into the corporations. In order to achieve entrepreneurship some tools are needed that one of the right ones for the development of entrepreneurship is the existence of organizational structure based on the concepts of entrepreneurship. In this direction, the researcher is in the pursuit of determining whether is there any significant relationship between organizational structure dimensions and corporate entrepreneurship in entrepreneurial companies or not. This research in regard to objective and method is applied and descriptive-analytical respectively. Since designing structure is one of the important managementís responsibilities, the statistical community includes managers and experts of several entrepreneurial sample companies. For testing the normality of the data, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used. For analyzing the data in the descriptive section of two-dimensional tables and in the analytical statistics section, one-sample and independent t-Tests, ANOVA test and finally the Friedman test were used. By studying the conducted tests, it can be concluded that the dimension of formality and professionalization has no distinct impact on the entrepreneurship of organization, but other dimensions of entrepreneurship such as centralization, complexity, specialization and organizational hierarchy have an impact on the company entrepreneurship and ultimately the researcherís main hypothesis based on the impact of organizational structureís dimensions on the corporate entrepreneurship will be confirmed.
Keywords: Entrepreneurship, Corporate Entrepreneurship, Entrepreneurial Company Organizational Structure

New Applications of Adomian Decomposition Method
Emad A.Az-Zo'bi

The Adomian decomposition method (ADM) is implemented for analytic-numeric treatment for certain class of nonlinear partial differential systems called system of conservation laws. We prove the convergence of ADM applied to these types of systems. The analysis will be illustrated by investigating several examples to indicate reliability, accuracy and convergence of the method.
Keywords: Hyperbolic system of conservation laws; Adomian decomposition method; Adomian polynomials; Convergence.

Fractional Formulation of Higgs Lagrangian Density
A. D. Al-Oqali

In this work we present fractional Euler-Lagrange equations and fractional Hamiltonís equation of motion for Higgs field using the Left-Right Riemann-Liouville fractional derivative. The formulation presented and the resulting equations are in exact agreement to those appearing in classical field theory.
Keywords: Fractional derivative; Lagrangian density; Higgs phenomenon

Pore Pressure and Fracture Gradientassessment from Well Log Petrophysical Data of Agbada Formation, South-East Niger-Delta
Rotimi Oluwatosin John, Adeoye TaiyeOlushola, Ologe Oluwatoyin and Onuh Charles Yunusa

Changing down-hole conditions observed during hydrocarbon exploration can be divers. Some desired ones concern oil/gas shows while others may vary from borehole/drilling fluid association and pressure situations. Managing pressure variations and geopressure zones while drilling has been an issue of concern which has yield generic positive results over the years. However pre-pressure zones (i.e. zones above pressure zones), can display characteristics that are worthy of note in view of the underlying rock potential. Pore pressure and fracture pressure has been evaluated using Eatonís equations amongst others on data for some reservoir of Agbada formation in the petroliferous Niger Delta. This is in view of knowing the potential of this pre-pressured zone with effective porosity and water saturation necessitated by production operations and well re-entry processes. These computations adopted various pressure models and have yielded good result presented as plots. It was observed that depth of rock units is the main indicator of rock shrinkage leading to increase in fracture due to increase in production and hydraulic fracturing. Adequate attention must be paid to the integrity (density) of the explored formation as they become sandwiched with under-compacted argillaceous sediments.
Keywords: drilling, pressure, pre-pressure, fracture, shrinkage, porosity, pore pressure.

Traumatic Events and Their Relation to Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Depression and Religiosity Among
Ahmad Jibreel Matarneh

The present study aimed at investigating the relationship between traumatic events and the aftermath pressure disorders, depression, and the degree of religiosity among a sample of Mu'tah University students during second semester for the academic year 2013-2014. The study sample consisted of (490) students, divided into (262) male, and (228 students) female students, where (195) of them were from science colleges and 295 from humanities colleges, using simple random method. After scanning the previous studies and literature, three tools were used, the first related to the scale of depression (Beck) and the second related to post traumatic scale, while the third related to religiosity scale, The Results showed a positive and statistically significant relationship between students suffering traumatic events, and the PTSD(depression and the degree of religiosity) among university students. In other words, with the increase of traumatic events, religiosity and depression increase, the results indicated that there were no statistically significant differences in the level of traumatic events among university students attributed to gender, where the value of (T) = 0.779. The results showed significant differences in the level of PTSD among university students attributed to the academic achievement, where (P)= (14.37).In the light of these results, the study came out with several recommendations.
Keywords: Post Traumatic Stress Disorder( PTSD), Depression, and Religiosity

Innovative Basis of Research of the Main Traditional Craftsmanship Patterns of Ganja
Elnur Latif Hasanov

In Ganja in a life of the population the role of craft products was great during centuries and in this scientific paper the main moments of historic-ethnographical importance of development of the main traditional branches of craftsmanship of Ganja for the first time has been systematic investigated on the basis of multidisciplinary approach. Also were researched the basic skill characteristics of different wares of these traditional handicraft branches. During these scientific investigations have been used some main innovative academic methods as application of biochemical innovative technologic methods (as radiocarbon, dendrochronologic methods and etc.), research of local materials of craftsmanship patterns, determination of traditional methods and materials of handicraft wares on the basis of innovative roads.
For the first time research of problem of genesis of handicraft traditions on the basis of production technology and technique of local craftsmanship patterns of ancient and classical periods. Foundation of the new scientific direction on ethnography and ethnology on the basis of investigation of sustainable historical features of handicraft branches in research of the historical past of formation and development of Urban culture, investigation of importance of the handicraft patterns as the main source in research of characteristics of formation and development of Urban culture (formation process of the features of urban culture) for ancient and classical periods on the basis of scientific arguments. For the first time has been researched the significance of traditional craftsmanship patterns from ethnographic and archaeological point of view in investigation of development of features of urban culture in Ganja on the basis of scientific arguments and were noted the main results of investigations of local researchers in this field with scientists from the USA and Japan on the basis of application of innovative technologies and methods.
Keywords: Ganja, handicraft branches, historic-ethnographical research, Azerbaijan

The Impact of the Application of the International Financial Reporting Standards for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (IFRS for SMEs) on Borrowing Gap from the Standpoint of Credit Analysts in Saudi Commercial Banks
Amjad Jameel Al Shorafaa

This study aimed to identify the impact of the application of the international financial reporting standard for small and medium-sized enterprises (IFRS for SMEs) on borrowing gap from the standpoint of credit analysts in Saudi commercial banks. To achieve the objectives of the study, a questionnaire was prepared and distributed to a sample of credit analysts and the 58 analysts, Descriptive statistics were used to extract the averages and standard deviations and simple regression analysis to test the hypotheses of the study. The Study found: Double of the application of the international financial reporting requirements for small and medium-sized enterprises and thus a lack of confidence in its financial statements, which limited the ability of banks to finance them. Through test hypotheses of the study, the study found the presence of trace statistically significant for the application of international financial reporting standard special requirements of small and medium-sized enterprises, it borrowing measured gap three dimensions (guarantees, risks, costs), where the results showed that the application of the standard for small enterprises of the international financial reporting requirements and medium-sized lead to provide information that will enable the Bank to assess the adequacy of safeguards when deciding to grant credit and the creation of regular and uniform financial reports can be unreliable in assessing credit risk, In addition, the application of the standard requirements do not need a high cost and lead to a reduction of guaranteed access to capital. The study recommends that the application of international financial reporting standard's requirements for small and medium-sized installations, it to limit the borrowing gap and conduct more research and the introduction of other variables did not address her study.
Keywords: Standard requirements of international financial reporting standards for small and medium-sized enterprises of the (IFRS for SMEs), Borrowing gap.

The Role of Discourse Analysis in Developing the Listening Comprehension Skill
Eissa Al Khotaba

This paper is an attempt to investigate the function of discourse analysis in improving medicine students' listening comprehension by a group of students doing their Bachelor of Science in Medicine at Muítah University in Jordan. It investigates the function of discourse as a way of comprehending difficult skills to learn and practice effective listening. The result of the research provided some helpful recommendations for ESP teachers through discussing the theoretical and practical bases of Discourse Analysis (DA) in teaching listening comprehension. The sample of the study included 80 Saudi students in their 1st preparatory year Medicine. The research recommends that decision-makers be concerned with developing and designing listening materials relevant to the function of Discourse Analysis in teaching listening comprehension for medicine or ESP students.
Keywords: Discourse Analysis, Medicine, ESP, Listening Comprehension