American Journal of Scientific Research

Issue 109
December, 2017

Effect of irrigation plan on wheat performance and water use efficiency in Esfahan province, Iran
4-12
Nostratollah Montajabi and HamidrezaTajdari

Abstract:
We studied the effect of four irrigation regime on Mahdavi wheat performance and water use efficiency, straw, weight of 1000 grains, protein percentage in Esfahan province, Iran according to randomized complete blocks design. irrigation treatments included four irrigation interval after T1=50, T2=75, T3=100, and T4=125 mm evaporation from a Class A pan in four replications. Fertilizers were consumed according to the soil test, soil productivity, and plant nutrition as 350 kg/yr at the first year and 250 kg/yr at the second year and triple super-phosphate and potassium sulfate fertilizers, each 100 kg/ha in year. The results showed that the effect of year on grain weight, straw, water use efficiency, and protein percentage was significant in 1% level. Grain protein of the second year was more than that in the first year significantly. The effects of irrigation treatments on Grain yield, Grain protein percentage and water use efficiency by Grain production were significant in 5% for Grain and in 1% for straw. Grain and straw yield were decreased by changing irrigation interval in T1, T3, and T4 periods, which were significant in T3 and T4. Grain protein percentage in treatment T1 was most and its diference with T3 was significant. Water use efficiency significantly increased by elongation of irrigation interval. Least water use efficiency was for T1 with 0.99 and most water use efficiency was for T4 with 1.24 kg grain per m3.
Keywords: Irrigation plan, protein, evaporation pan, water use efficiency (WUE), wheat.


Differential Subordination and Superordinationof Univalent Functions By Using Generalized Integral Operator and Bernardi-Libera-Livingston Integral Operator
13-18
Waggas Galib Atshan and Enaam HadiAbd

Abstract:
In this paper, we introduce several differentional Subordinations and superordinations which are defined using generalized integral operator and Bernardi-Libera-Livihgston integral operator. Anumber of interesting consequences of some of these subordinations and superordinations are also discussed.



Recherche des levures et des moisissures dans les eaux conditionnées et contrôle de la qualité marchande selon les conditions de stockage (Maroc)
19-25
Aicha BELHOMSA, Mohamed SIBARI, Imane KHERRATI, Youssef EL MADHI, Bouchaib SARHANE, Driss BELGHYTI, Khadija EL KHARRIM

Abstract:
Dans le cadre de la surveillance et du contrôle des maladies à transport hydrique, une étude prospective de cinq mois a été lancée depuis le mois de Mai au mois de Septembre 2014.
Cette étude a pour objectif la recherche de la présence des levures et des moisissures ainsi que l’évaluation préliminaire de la qualité hygiénique des eaux conditionnées.
L’étude a porté sur quatre-vingt-douze (92) échantillons des eaux embouteillées, acheminés des différentes régions.
Sur le plan bactériologique, et selon la Norme Marocaine 03.7.001 de l’année 2006, 35% des eaux analysées ont présenté une forte contamination par la flore mésophile aérobie totale avec une densité maximale de 3.6 103UFC/ 100 ml. Egalement la recherche des levures et des moisissures montre que 80 % des eaux analysées ont été contaminées avec concentrations allant de 0,1 101 à 3,4 102UFC/100 ml.
Aucune présence des Clostridium sulfito-réducteurs et des Pseudomonas aeruginosa n’a été noté. En effet, ces microorganismes ont été absents dans la totalité des eaux analysées.
La consommation d’une eau potable est un élément important pour la prévention contre les maladies hydriques. De ce fait, cette eau de consommation doit bénéficier d’une attention particulière.
Elle ne doit contenir ni substances chimiques dangereuses, ni germes pathogènes et nocifs pour la santé. C’est pourquoi, l’ensemble des acteurs dans le domaine de l’eau doivent veiller en permanence sur sa qualité.
Keywords: Eau conditionnée, maladies hydriques, levures et moisissures, qualité bactériologique, santé publique.


Daily Protein Intake With and Without Protein Supplementation in Kuwaiti Male Bodybuilders & Swimmers
26-32
Mohammed Alkatan, Bader Aldimkhi, and Kazem J. Ghloum

Abstract:
Introduction: Resistance training and swimming are becoming increasing popular in the Middle East, especially in Kuwait. Adequate protein intake is essential to achieving a positive net muscle protein balance and increasing skeletal muscle protein synthesis. In addition to using protein supplements, such as whey and casein protein, bodybuilders and swimmers consume more protein in their diet than is necessary to meet training-dependent protein requirements. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to determine the daily protein intake of Kuwaiti male, collegiate recreational bodybuilders and high-level swimmers and discern the type and timing of supplementary protein intake.
Methods: Nineteen bodybuilders and 23 swimmers, all of whom were Kuwaiti male, collegiate recreational athletes, volunteered for the study. All subjects completed a 24-hour dietary recall to estimate total daily protein intake with and without protein supplement consumption.
Results: Bodybuilders who use protein supplements have higher daily protein consumption (149 g/day) compared with those whose protein consumption is from food sources alone (118 g/day). For swimmers, protein consumption was not significantly higher when protein supplements were consumed. The preferred protein supplement for both bodybuilders and swimmers was whey protein. In regards to the timing of post-exercise protein supplement consumption, most participants in both the bodybuilders and swimmers groups supplemented 1 hour after training.
Conclusion: Kuwaiti male, collegiate recreational bodybuilders who combine protein intake from food sources and protein supplements do not exceed recommended levels. Additionally, protein consumption would remain in the recommended range should bodybuilders fail to consume their daily protein supplement. Kuwaiti high-level swimmers should consume protein supplements to meet the recommended daily protein intake.
Keywords: Friction Stir Welding, Magnesium Alloy, Tensile Strength.


Effets de la pollution sonore et des aptitudes neurocognitivopsychologiques sur la survenue des accidents de la voie publique chez un échantillon de conducteurs au Maroc
33-47
I. Echerbaoui, I. Cherkaoui El Malki, A.O.T. Ahami, C. Mottier, P. Wallon

Abstract:
Le stress professionnel est omniprésent dans toutes les entreprises, notamment dans le secteur de transport public. En fait, il présente un grand problème de santé publique au Maroc. Néanmoins, peu de travaux marocains l’abordent auprès des métiers de chauffeurs de taxi. L’objectif de la présente étude est donc d'étudier les différences entre les différents groupes de conducteurs professionnels et non-professionnels en termes de réactions de stress, des nuisances sonores et d’implication dans la production des accidents de la voie publique (AVP). L’étude est de type transversal descriptif, réalisée au moyen d’un questionnaire et de tests neuropsychologiques, auprès 120 conducteurs au Maroc. Le stress a été évalué à l’aide de l’échelle de Stress Perçu (PSS) et le Test Résistance au Stress (TRS). Selon le PSS, les deux tiers (63.33 %) des chauffeurs de taxi pouvaient être considérés comme stressés. Chez ces chauffeurs de taxi, les composantes spécifiques les plus importantes sont les troubles de l’humeur, les troubles de sommeil, la pression de temps, l’ennui dans le travail, la sensation du stress et la fatigue à la fin de la conduite. Ainsi, 65 % des chauffeurs prennent une pause après 5 à 6 h de travail. D’après le Test Résistance au Stress, la population des chauffeurs de taxi est plus homogène mais offre une résistance au stress un peu plus faible que les conducteurs non-professionnels. Cette étude apporte un éclairage nouveau à la compréhension du stress au travail en utilisant des nouvelles méthodes de mesure et d’évaluations telles que le TRS. Elle invite tous les intervenants du domaine de la sécurité routière et de la santé publique à intervenir afin de réduire ou d’éliminer les AVP.
Keywords: Stress professionnel, chauffeur de taxi, nuisances sonores, accident, résistance au stress.


Estimation of Hydrodynamic Parameters of Soils in the Unsaturated Zone of Allada Plateau By Scaling Infiltration Equation and Beerkan Methods
48-70
Soclo W. P., Gbaguidi T. B., Igue A. M., Agbossou E.

Abstract:
The study of the effect of the variability of hydrodynamic parameters of soils in the unsaturated zone on flux requires the prior accurate estimate of hydrodynamic parameters. At local scale, traditional methods of physical and hydrodynamic characterization of soils are very accurate and efficient to describe the transfer of water in the soil. Just only the hydrodynamic properties of the soil are sufficiently well known. At large scale against, these methods have their limitations. They prove in fact, often time consuming, and larger areas become difficult to be characterized at hydrodynamic point of view.
For parameterization of the main soils of the Allada plateau consists of Haplic Acrisols, Umbric Fluvisols and Ferric Acrisols, we adopted a simplified method, easy to implement and much less time and equipment consuming. This is an experimental method called Beerkan method which relies on the knowledge of the particle-size distribution of the soil, its dry density, simplified infiltration tests using cylinders and scaling models of infiltration equations used as references. This study describes the experimental protocol and method of analysis which is applied to the estimation of parameters from the retention curve models, hydraulic conductivity and infiltration equation describing the hydrodynamic properties of soils of the unsaturated zone. The parameters of two orders are the hydrodynamic shape parameters and scale parameters.
The shape parameters related to the soil texture are derived from particle-size data analysis. The scale or normalization parameters depend on soil structure. They are obtained by inverse modeling and optimization from the infiltration tests. The concept of sorptivity and non-dimensional equations of the infiltration are the theoretical bases of this study. The results from the formalism for infiltration mono- and three-dimensional of Braud study (2005) are used. The relevance of the method has been shown from in situ and laboratory measured data on the main soils of the study area aforementioned. To adjust the observations to models, we adopted a simple optimization method applied to two boundary models, the Green & Ampt (1911) and Talsma & Parlange (1972) models. At the optimization step, two (02) fitting programs written in R language have allowed one to optimize shape parameters and the other the scale parameters. Fitting results of some Haplic Acrisols and Ferric Acrisols are satisfactory with the GA model contrary to the TP model that has not reproduced well the hydrodynamic behavior of soils of the study area. The fitting error RMSE of all the soil is less than 15%. But model and data curves are not well fitted excepting ferric Acrisols of SOCII1_50 site.
Keywords: unsaturated zone of Allada Plateau, Beerkan methods and scaling, shape and scale parameters, texture and structure, inverse modeling and optimization, mono-infiltration and three-dimensional and non-dimensional equation.


The Failure of the Grf Intake Sea Water Line
71-86
K. Gumeni, K. Dhoska and J.Kaçani

Abstract:
The aim of the present work was to analyses the failure of the cooling system for steam cycle in the CCPP of Vlore (Albania). For this reason were carried out a lot of activities; an overall survey of the line, a study regarding the wind, wave and currents prediction, an overall analysis of the seabed movements, the meteorological marine condition and the back filling quality validation. The detailed study about the extreme wave condition off shore was carried out by the SWAN (Simulating Waves Nearshore) model. In light of the above activities results was concluded that the pipe failure was due to the slug of air inside the line. The air can enter into the pipe only from the waves breaking before or nearby the intake structure (mushroom). Frequent stop and go of the water flow have caused ingress of significant amounts of air and in the end was accumulated a slug of air of about 25 m ore more in length and minimum 50% of air in volume, capable to lift the buried pipe. Water flow much less than normal allowed coalescence of bubbles in the pipe and accumulation of sediment. It has been assesed that the only reliable force capable of lifting such length of pipe is a slug of air inside the line.
Keywords: Wave and wind model, Intake structure, GRF pipe, Bouyance force, significant wave height, Weibull prediction, wave energy, breaking waves.


Evolution of the Coastline and Sedimentary Dynamics in Port-Bouët Bay, Abidjan (Côte d'Ivoire)
87-96
N’guessan Yao Alexis, Konan Konan Ernest, Touré Mamadou, Sékongo René, Wognin Valérie and Aka Kouamé

Abstract:
The Ivorian coastline and in particular the coastline between the entrance channel in Abidjan port of Vridi and the Port-Bouët lighthouse do not escape the phenomenon of erosion. In order to better understand the vulnerability of this sector to erosion and to determine the kinematics of the coastline, we made topographic profiles, and used satellite images from 2001 to 2015. Finally, the granulometry of the superficial sediments was studied in order to to know if these granulometric facies can be witness to coastal erosion. This study focuses on the problematic of updating the data of the evolutionary trend of the Vridi-Port-Bouët perimeter because of the dynamism of the area, by the joint analysis of the morphological characteristics of the beach and the dynamics of the line. next to. Sediments from the sites studied (Capko, Bidet and Phare) have shown that the sands in this area are very coarse to coarse, well graded and transported by gradual suspension. They present a gradual increase in the size of the grains from the surface to the depth (200 cm) testifying to the evolution of the coastline. The difference between the top of the beach and the low seas is high (6 to 7 m). The profiles of the beaches of Vridi-Port-Bouët show eroding beaches. On the other hand, cords located west of the Vridi Canal are fattening (about 4.2 m / year). The satellite images revealed erosion cells interspersed with more or less stable coast segments east of the Vridi Canal. The average speed of the retreat of the shoreline is between 0.2 and 1.5 m / year. The study has highlighted several parameters that influence this part of the coastline. These are essentially oceanic parameters, protection structures of the Port of Abidjan Canal, the presence of a Hole-Without-Background and numerous human activities.
Keywords: erosion, coastline, morphology, beach, sediments, Vridi, Port-Bouët, Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire.