American Journal of Scientific Research

Issue 86
March, 2013

Evaluation of Geomorphometric Parameters in Gil Playa, Iran
7-11
Mehdi Kashefi

Abstract:
In the present paper, aim has been made to study the detail morphometric characteristics of Gil playa in Far province, Iran. For detailed study, we used Landsat data for preparing digital elevation model (DEM), and geographical information system (GIS) was used in evaluation of morphometric parameters in Gil playa. playa boundary have been prepared using ArcHydro Tool; and contour, slope-aspect, hillshade have been prepared using Surface Tool in ArcGIS-10 software, and DEM. Different thematic maps i.e. slope, superimposed profile, and longitudinal profiles have been prepared by using ArcGIS software. in the study area have computed 10 profile. These studies are very useful for elevation of morphometry parameters in Gil playa.
Keywords: Morphometric Analysis, Geomorphology, DEM, Gil playa, GIS


Physical Criteria Codification of Urban Sustainable Communities (Emphasized on Iran Hot and Arid Climate)
12-27
Seyed Majid Mofidi Shemirani and Hamed Moztarzadeh

Abstract:
Strong tendency to the urbanization and population growth in cities (which contain a variety of reasons, including greater focus on services in the city) is a phenomenon with which the developing countries are grappling. On the other hand, following the rise in global warming and climate change, thinkers and theorists have tried looking for different solutions. One of the proposed solutions is the theory of "sustainable development”. This theory that was proposed following the urban population growth, uncontrolled urban development and the problems raised in urban areas, has emphasized on the need for economic and environmental constraints. But in recent decades, with the emergence of the slogan "think globally, act locally" it has had more local aspects. Certainly any city can be identified with the characteristics of residential community. If the problems and vulnerabilities in these areas are less, the city can meet the various economic, social, cultural needs.
Today in most developing countries there are many developments in the old urban texture and their replacement with new texture which contain lots of problems. So that when a comparison between the new textures is done with the older community, more problems will be found. The purpose of this paper is to explore the properties of these older Communities in terms of physical aspects. The hypothesis of this paper is that the physical characteristics of local-traditional Communities in the hot and arid climate of Iran have some principles that will lead to sustainability. In order to prove this hypothesis, the surveys have been used in areas of the desert cities. The paper finally reaches the conclusion that the local-traditional Communities in the hot and arid climate of Iran follow the sustainability criteria in terms of physical aspects.
Keywords: Community, Physical Criteria, Hot and Arid Climate, Sustainability


Female Leadership: An Exploratory Research from Lebanon
28-52
Hussin Hejase, Ziad Haddad, Bassam Hamdar, Rasha Massoud and George Farha

Abstract:
In spite of the massive admittance of women into the workplace, and the increasing numbers of women holding mid-level managerial positions, top-level positions remain as elusive to women today as they were more than a decade ago. Working in a world dominated by male decision-makers and their established practices, women encounter a variety of barriers that impede their progress towards top positions in their careers. One widely accepted explanation for this small number of female executives is the persistence of negative stereotypes, discrimination and glass ceiling against women as managers. As for those women who succeed in reaching managerial positions, they are further subjected to comparisons with their male counterparts regarding their leadership skills. Accordingly, one wonders if gender has any direct effect in the pursuit of leadership.
This paper uses exploratory research to shed light on the different factors that affect women’s actual behavior and performance at top positions, and on the real reasons that prevent women from reaching the top positions in organizations. A survey questionnaire is distributed to a convenient sample of Lebanese managers and employees with the aim of assessing their attitude and behavior towards Lebanese female leadership, and to identify factors that may lead to glass ceiling, discrimination, and bias against women in managerial positions.
Keywords: Discrimination, glass ceiling, females, leadership, Lebanon.


An Efficient Expert System for Intrusion Detection
53-80
Sayed Omid Azarkasb

Abstract:
With the development of computer networks, the attacks and intrusions were increased. To identify the intruders to the systems and computer networks, various intrusion detection systems were built. Mostly, it is required that by detection of any new attack, the update intrusion detection system is delivered. However, due to the non-algorithm nature of the development process in these systems, the changes are costly and slow. The current paper proposes an expert model to build intrusion detection systems on which automatic detection of unknown intrusion models are identified and the system knowledge is updated after any detection. In the architecture of expert system of the proposed intrusion detection, at first the normal behavior models are created in the network by learning based on C5.0, JRIP rule, then any new behavior diverted of normal behavior models or not compatible with the previous identified intrusion models, they are new intrusion and this can be heard by system security office. The security office can add the obtained intrusion models after reviewing detected intrusion models basis. One of the advantages of expert system is knowledge base nature, increasing growth of knowledge sources during learning operation, using various methods in learning and detection, the ability of automatic detection of the attacks and unknown intrusion models and using parallel processing. The experiments are done and the results show good performance of this system in detection of unknown intrusions and restoring security in the system.
Keywords: Intrusion detection system, Expert system, Behavior analysis, Network normal behaviors, Anomaly network behavior, Decision tree, C5.0 machine learning method, JRIP machine learning method.

Composition of Epic and Mysticism in Poetry of Salman Harati
81-90
Maryam Nazar Choob-Masjedi

Abstract:
Literature of the Holy Defense is called to a series of papers and documents referring their main theme and subject to problems and affairs of eight years holy defense against Iraq and its consequences. The poem of holy defense is the product of rich and fruitful poetry with all moments full of sincerity and faith, and is enjoyable and pleasant because it is composed truthfully. Holy defense poetry has historical and social importance and is eternal due to its value to record spiritual, epical and mystical moments, and will be left as a memorial to the end of human history. The composition of epic and Mysticism is a kind of deconstruction in the poetry of Islamic Republic of Iran manifested as a part of resistance literature of this native land. Epical poetry, the most prominent kind of anti-enemy movement to repel them, along with artistic creation of content and selection of words and phrases conforms to the concept of epic, and Mysticism means fineness of soul and decrease of corruptions and development of human’s heart to the extents to accept others and to search hearts to remove alienations.In this paper, author tries to extract epical and mystical concepts in poems of Salman Harati to analyze epical and mystical poems and to introduce the composition of these two factors in poetry of Salman Harati.
Keywords: Poetry of Resistance, Salam Harati, Epic, Mysticism


Explanation to “Identity of Place” Model and Investigation of its Effective Factors
91-100
Seyed Majid Mofidi Shemirani and Vahideh Hodjati

Abstract:
Identity of place was introduced as a special problem and even a crisis over the twentieth century urbanization, and it still remains as a major challenge to urbanization and architecture. Naturally, preserving cities’ identity or making the effort to create identities for them is among the growing concerns of urban designers. Along the same lines, the present study, as an attempt to investigate various aspects of place identity and categorize the factors involved in the concept, will introduce a new model composed of elements and processes dealing with the interaction between human beings and places. The results show that place identity entails a continual response of the place to human being’s needs and expectations, the preservation of people’s memories and collective associations, the protection of the specific elements of the city and its desired structure (the concept of unity in plurality), and an attempt to maintain the internal similarities and differences, as the city undergoes transformations in time.
Keywords: Identification, Identity of place, Place identity, Needs and expectations, Memory, Association, Structure


SUGAR-M: A System for user-Guided Association Rule Mining
101-110
Abdallah Alashqur, Haneen Al Issa, Alia Sawalha and Ezdehar Sabbag

Abstract:
This paper presents a prototype system for association rule mining. This system enables the user to guide the mining process. Many times, the user is interested in finding the association rules between certain attributes instead of the whole dataset. In this paper, we describe the implementation of a data mining system that enables the user to guide the association rule mining process by identifying the set of attributes in a database table among which association rules are to be discovered.
Keywords: Data Mining, Association Rule Intension/Extension, Lattice representation.


Threat of Sanctions and Management of Resistance Economy in Iran
111-116
Afshar Babak

Abstract:
In this paper, we have surveyed Resistance Economy to deal with sanctions. The Resistance Economy is a new concept of economy of Iran that introduced by Leader of Iran. The Resistance Economy is only way to neutralizing the threat of sanctions against Iran. We have investigated some economic solutions for neutralizing the threat of sanctions. The main solution to overcome sanctions is reform of mistake of policymaker’s think in Iran. The second solution is independent of budget from oil revenue by reforming of tax system and privatization. The third solution is Investment on Knowledge and Scientists.
Keywords: Sanctions, Resistance Economy, Iran


The Relationship between Stress and Perverseness in Young People (From the Point of View of Mu’tah University Students)
117-128
Ghadeer Pernec Adoub Al Zaben

Abstract:
This study aimed to identify the pressures on the student at Mu’tah University in Karak governorate and its role in pushing students to practice preserve behavior the aim of this study is to uncover the relationship between patterns of pressure (University pressure and parental pressures) and negative emotions, and uncover the relationship between negative emotions and behavioral perverseness, the relationship between the academic pressures and behavioral perverseness , and the relationship between family pressure and behavioral perverseness.
And to achieve the objectives of the study a questionnaire was applied to collect data and distributes it to a sample of (1000) random students of compulsory University requirements in second semester 2012.
The study found a statistically significant positive relationship between the negative emotions and both the University and parental pressure and the results showed a statistically significant relationship between the negative emotions and perverseness, and a statistically significance relationship between the University pressure and the behavioral perverseness.
Studies have reached a series of recommendations including:
Expanding studies in various pressures faced by young people in our communities to learn about their problems and work to reduce their impact on them.
Reviewing University policies, and methods used by faculty to assess students and reconsidering the traditional image of the relationship between students and teachers, to make the University a more positive environment and activate its role in building students ' character.
Building indicative and guidance programs for university students to train them on the positive adaption methods with pressure, and strengthen their self-restraint.
Keywords: Relationship, stress, perverseness, young people, University, students.


A Theoretical Exposition of Entrepreneurial Government in Nigeria
129-138
Stephen Aigbepue, Cletus O. Akenbor and Enaina, Stella Olohi

Abstract:
To truly transform the Nigerian economy, governments must begin by examining the key drivers of economic recovery and creating a long-term vision of economic sustainability that can guide reform. This process is not stargazing; it is being smart about the long-term trends that are likely to shape the future of the global economy and harnessing them now. One way of achieving this goal is for governments to exhibit an entrepreneurial behaviour. It is upon this premise that this paper examines-the differences between government and business; the bureaucratic government; meaning of entrepreneurial government; the need for government entrepreneurial behaviour; innovation and public entrepreneurship public employee as a government intrapreneur; and strategies for entrepreneurial government. A cursory look at this paper indicates that entrepreneurial government is sensitive to the needs of her people, gives the employees a sense of meaning, control and ownership, and empower her citizens while providing them with services that they have increasingly expected. This is the type of government needed in this twenty-first century but unfortunately Nigeria is not counted among the countries with such entrepreneurial behaviour. This must change and the time is now.
Keywords: Entrepreneurial government, public entrepreneur, Bureaucratic government, Intrapreneur, innovation.


Foreign Language Identity and English Achievement at a Specific Educational Level
139-148
Ebrahim Khodadady, Farideh Sarraf and Marziye Mokhtary

Abstract:
The present study aimed not only to study the factorial structure of 30-indicator Foreign Language Identity Scale (FLIS) within an educationally controlled level but also to explore its relationships with the achievement of English as a foreign language (EFL). To this end, the FLIS was administered to six hundred and eighty grade three high school (G3HS) students in Mashhad, Iran, and their responses were subjected to Principal Axis Factoring. The rotation of results via Varimax with Kaiser Normalization and removing low cross loading indicators yielded five factors, i.e., Idealized Reception, Idealized Society, First Languaculture, Idealized Self-Expression, and Idealized Communication. The findings thus confirm EFL identity as a factorial construct whose five dimensions correlate significantly with each other. With the exception of First Languaculture which emphasis the relationship between G3HS students’ Persian and EFL identity, Idealized Reception, Idealized Society, Idealized Self-Expression, and Idealized Communication correlate significantly with EFL achievement. Among these factors, Idealized Reception shows the strongest relationship with EFL achievement followed by the FLIS itself. The results are discussed and suggestions are made for future research.
Keywords: Identity, foreign language, achievement, construct validity


The Role of Knowledge Management on the Success of Customer Relationship Management through Organizational Factors
149-164
Naser Azad and Hossein Kiani

Abstract:
Customer relationship management (CRM) and knowledge management (KM) have become key strategic tool for all companies, especially in the current competitive environment. Moreover, customer knowledge is an important issue for CRM implementation. Reviewing the literature, we found many studies that analyze the crucial role played by KM initiatives as determinants of the success of CRM. Moreover, we found also diverse studies that show high rates of failure when implementing that strategy, so there is still no integrated conceptual framework to guide companies to their successful implementation. In this paper, with data of 156 employees of software company of System Group in Iran, we examine the relationships between KM and CRM success using a structural equation model. The main contribution is that having knowledge management capabilities is not sufficient for the success of CRM, but there are other factors to consider. In particular, organizational factors indeed impact CRM success and they appear to be intermediaries of the impact of other factors (KM capabilities/technological/customer orientation factors) in the success of CRM (in financial and marketing terms).
Keywords: Knowledge management, Customer relationship management (CRM), Organizational factors, customer orientation factors


Feasibility Study of Pedestrian Route Construction Aimed at a New Attitude toward Participatory Planning in the Case of Hafez Street of Shiraz
165-176
Elahe Hojjati

Abstract:
Precious historical textures play a crucial role in attracting tourists and spending of citizens’ leisure times besides acting as the identifiers of the urban spaces. Most of historical textures were pedestrian-based in the past and used to play role as spaces for human interactions. With increase of population and dominance of automobiles in Iranian cities, the respective textures underwent changes including exceeded traffic and sonic and visual pollutions leading to gradual elimination of historical structure and lessening of identity in these regions. Hence, feasibility study and planning for construction of historical and touristic pedestrian routes in these areas could act as an effective strategy in protection and revival of the respective historical and cultural centers. For this purpose, among the historical district of SHIRAZ City, Hafez Street was selected as the case study due to strong ancient and cultural antiquity and background. The present research deals with feasibility study and planning for construction of pedestrian route in this historical district using a participatory planning approach.
In this respect, after specifying the main questions and objectives of research, the preliminary studies are conducted from geographical-climatic, economic, social, demographic, environmental, and textural aspects, as represented by SWOT table. The objective of these studies is to analyze the current facilities and restrictions in this street aimed at feasibility study of pedestrian route construction. Subsequently, according to research findings and using questionnaires and participation of beneficiaries and authorities, the general issues of the plan are prioritized and evaluated, and ultimately, the decisions and policies are made on this basis.
Keywords: Pedestrian route, feasibility study, historical texture, participatory planning


Ionic and Osmotic Equilibria of Human Red Blood Cells
177-187
Omar S. Hajjawi

Abstract:
A healthy mature human red blood cell (RBC) lacks nucleus and it is a disc-shaped under physiological conditions (Li et al., 2007). The biconcave discocyte RBC has flexible bi-layer membrane with a high surface-to-volume ratio that facilitates large reversible elastic deformation as it repeatedly passes through narrow capillaries during microcirculation which is necessary to transport oxygen and carbon dioxide though haemoglobin molecules which are contained in the RBC intracellular are essential for gas transport within the circulation. The discocyte shape of RBC is encoded in the mechanical properties of its bilayer-membranes: 7.8μm in diameter; 136μm2 in surface area, 85.1μm3 in volume and 1.7-2.2μm in thickness (Tse and Lux, 1999; Turgeon, 2004). Some variations in size, shape or colour of RBC may be seen on microscopic examination with Write's Romanosky – type stain (Dunphy (2010). The movement and distribution of ions across RBC membranes is greatly influenced by the presence of charged impermeable macromolecules which prompt an equivalent number of oppositely charged permeable ions to remain with them in the same compartment in which they occur (Donnan, 1911; Lang, 2007). The main basic function of the sodium pump is to maintain the Na+/K+ gradients across the membrane. Thus, membrane potential, nutrients uptake, intracellular pH and volume are all regulated by the integrity of functional sodium pump. Also, since solutions of extracellular and intracellular are asymmetric in concentration, diffusion of water in one direction exceeds that in the other and the net movement of water across the membrane continues until the concentrations of solute becomes the same on both sides of the membrane or until the force generated by the osmosis is balanced by some opposing pressure resulting from the tendency of one solution to increase in volume at the expense of the other. So, any change in the extracellular pH affects the intracellular solution (Lardner, 2001; Swietach et al., 2010) and the plasma barrier mechanics contributes to the explanation of stomatocyte-discocyte-echnocyte shape bending rigidity.
Keywords: Electrochemical membrane potential; Donnan equilibrium; haemoglobin; red blood cell shape; permeant ions; osmotic pressure; surface charge; K+/Cl- cotransport; K+(Na+)/H+ exchanger; Na+/K+-ATPase; discocyte.


The Effect of Replacing Fishmeal with Spirulina on Growth and Productivity of Common Carp Cyprinus carpio L
188-193
Nasreen M. Abdulrahman and Hawkar J. Hamad Ameen

Abstract:
The use of blue green algae Spirulina in aquaculture has several potential advantages over the production of fish. This study was designed to investigate the effect of different replacement levels of fishmeal with Spirulina on growth performance and some blood parameters of common carp Cyprinus carpio L., the trail was conducted for 105 days and for this purpose 200 fingerlings common carp. Mean initial weight was (32.7g). The fish were acclimated to laboratory conditions and fed with control pellets (31% protein) prior to the feeding trials for 21 days. Five experimental diets were used and Spirulina replaced fishmeal protein from the standard diet at 0% (T1), 5% (T2), 10% (T3), 15% (T4), and 20% (T5) levels. There was significant difference in the final weight attained by common carp at all levels of Spirulina incorporation as compared to the fish-meal-based control diet. However, the replacement of fishmeal by 10% Spirulina resulted in significantly superior growth of carp. The specific and relative growth rate recorded in carp improved with higher levels of Spirulina inclusion.
Keywords: Growth, Spirulina, weight gain, specific growth rate, relative growth rate