American Journal of Scientific Research

Issue 88
May, 2013

The Role of Intellectual Capital on the Impact of Trust in Technology on using E-Commerce in SMEs
Mahdi Dehghani Soltani and Hadi Taheri, Hamid Reza Al-Taha and Ellahe Ghahri Shirin Abadi

The purpose of present research is to study the impact of trust in technology on using e-commerce in Kerman SMEs. Its population consists of SMEs’ managers (171) at Kerman. Since the population was limited, 171 standard questionnaires that their reliability was measured by Chronbach’s Alpha ratio were distributed among managers. To gather the information, library and field techniques were used. Present study is an applied and developmental study based on its purpose and it is descriptive and correlation study in terms of acquiring needed data. To analyze the data in deductive statistics section, Kolgoromov – Smirnov, confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation model in SPSS and LISREL software are used. The findings indicate that the role of intellectual capital in the impact of trust in technology on using e-commerce in SMEs was confirmed at Kerman.
Keywords: E-commerce, intellectual capital, trust in technology.

Determinants of Firm’s Leverage – Evidence from Pakistan’s Engineering Sector
Farah Riaz, Umara Noreen and Muhammad Yar Khan

Analysis of firm’s leverage is extremely important for corporate’s strategic financial decision making as it enables managers to finance a firm’s overall operations with different sources of funds. Several financial and business factors play a fundamental role in influential financial decisions of the firms. The underlying aim of this paper is to analyze the impact of key financial factors on firms’ strategic financial decisions. For the purpose of study, a theoretical model has been formulated using Panel Data analysis technique in pooled cross-sectional set of data. Analysis showed that firm’s profitability and its growth in assets have significantly negative association with leverage while mix findings were analyzed in case of tangibility and size of the firm. This study will add a remarkable contribution due to the existing vital role of Pakistan’s Engineering sector in economic growth and development. Moreover, the analysis of leverage is also very important in strategic financial decisions of engineering firms.
Keywords: Capital structure, financial factors, strategic financial decisions, cross-sectional set of data, panel data analysis.

Benefits of Social Network Services in Educational Process: King Abdulaziz University Case Study
Khalid M. Husain

Recently, colleges and universities have begun incorporating the social networks tools into their marketing mix to connect with everyone, from prospective students to alumni. Accordingly, the social media become an important tool in the universities as more people start using sites such as Facebook, LinkedIn, and Twitter on their daily lives. From these important facts, the KAU plan to use the social networks to enhance the educational levels for both staff and students either in teaching or researching process. Also, KAU built a link between its content management system “MARZ” and the social networking Twitter to announce about the latest and more recent information of KAU. As a competitive player in the academic world , KAU recognizes the critical need to satisfy its stakeholders: current and prospective students. Finally, KAU recommend the following to remain a competitive player in the academic domain: establish a committee comprised of faculty, students, staff to develop policy/strategic plan to advance the social media presence at the university, Incorporate a student voice in all social media efforts; Integrate a unified look among marketing efforts including social media tactics, allowing for efficient navigation by users and continue to monitor the effectiveness of social media efforts at the university as well as new trends and the efforts of other competitors.
Keywords: HEI, MARZ, SNS, Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, ROI, KAU, CMS, LMS and Social Networks System.

The Influence of Flapless Versus Mini-Flap Surgery on Soft Tissue Profile around A Dental Implant Inserted into Single Maxillary Edentulous Space using Stereolithographic Surgical Guide
Alaa Gouda Mansour and Mohamad Abd Elrehim Al-Shahat, Jilan Mohamed Youssef and Samah Ibraheem Mohammed

In this study we evaluate and compare the influence of implant insertion with flapless versus mini-flap approaches on the soft tissue profile around implant fixtures. Twenty BioHorizon implants were installed in twelve patients divided into group I (flapless group) and group II (flap group), each of ten. Insertion was aided by stereolithographical surgical guides to ensure the accuracy. Soft tissues changes were evaluated 15 days, 3 months (time of loading), 6 months, and twelve months following implant insertion. Our results revealed a significant difference between groups regarding probing depth (PD), gingival index (GI) and bleeding on probing (BOP) scores. However, the results showed no significant difference in regard to the width of keratinized tissues and the degree of papilla fill. According to the results reached, we recommend the flapless surgery as it provides valuable benefits in maintaining soft tissue profile around dental implants. In addition, mini-flap surgery should be considered as an alternative to conventional flap surger
Keywords: Flapless, mini-flap, implant, stereolithographic.

Policy Networks – A Dialectical Perspective toward the Case of Khwae Noi Dam Project
lsares Sunsaneevithayakul

In this study, the article illustrates a fourfold contribution to the literature on policy networks in general and the study of Thai public policy in particular. Firstly, it provides a perspective on policy networks emergence and formation from the context of a developmental state – a novel empirical investigation. Secondly, it develops a dialectical model of policy networks, following Marsh and Smith (2000), which it successful assimilates and applies to the Thai policy environment. Thirdly, it investigates the claim that policy networks are increasingly used by developmental states as a mode of governance for pursuing national development goals. And fourthly, it applies the dialectical model to Thai irrigation policy - The Case of Khwae Noi Dam Project. It is observed from the case study evidence that policy networks play a fundamental role in state building activities in Thailand and are thus the site of conflict between different conceptions of the public goods. The article identifies the emergence of new developmental policy networks in Thailand which reflect changing power relations at the core of the Thai state..
Keywords: Policy Networks, Dialectical Approach, Thai Irrigation Policy

The Effectiveness of a Guidance Collective Program for Rational Emotive Behavior in Reducing Social Phobia among the Students of Balqa Applied University in Jorda
Rogayah Abdallah Saleem AL-Sarayreh

The present study aimed at identifying the effectiveness of A Collective Program for Rational Emotive Behavior in reducing social phobia among the students of the Applied University of Balqa in Jordan, and detecting the differences in the impact of the program on gender. To achieve the objectives of the study a mentoring program was built, and a scale of social phobia were translate it to Arabic and optimized, and the validity of its psychometric characteristics (validity and reliability) were checked, applied to the sample of (32) university students in the province of Karak, who suffer from a social phobia disorder, they were divided evenly into two control groups (not exposed to the program), and experimental (subject to counseling program), its equivalence was confirmed on post measurement using t-test for independent samples, and the study concluded the following results: 1). There were differences between the average performance of experimental and control students groups on the social phobia scale in the post measurement, which indicates the effectiveness of the counseling program in reducing social phobia among university students., 2). There were no differences between the genders in the impact of counseling program on reducing social phobia. The study came out with the some recommendations.
Keywords: Counseling program, collective, rational emotive behavioral, social phobia.

Iranian Cultural Homeland
Ali Asghar Amini Dehaghi

Culture is a conceptual system which is considered as the content or meaning of the community, but it is a concept independent of society in front of its social container because historical experiences have shown that by the destruction of a society for any reasons such as wars, natural disasters, and etc., the culture of that society will continue to survive like a latent living creature so that in an appropriate opportunity it will appear again while adapting itself to time and place. Moreover, it is possible that culture won’t adapt to its social container for different reasons such as individuals’ insecurity within the society. This matter can lead to the development of double life culture in society. In this regard , the culture of Iranian society can be referred to which is based on group thinking in the ups and downs of history like “ homeland culture” and has caused Iranians to be interested in living in a conceptual society(homeland culture) since they feel insecure. Therefore, it is possible that the meaning of society is in contrast with the social container or the society itself and thus it won’t adapt to the reality of the society which is identified with its members’ behavior in this condition. That is, the way people really behave in society is different from what they have in their minds because they have to live a double life as they feel insecure. Language is the most important mirror which reflects the inner traits of society, and Persian poetry expresses numerous secrets and mysteries which cause solidarity among Iranian social groups in the process of social and political relations like a local medium. In this way the members of Iranian society are considered as subjective citizens of homeland culture or Iranian conceptual society. As a result Iranian dynamism has been able to survive during the history up to now by living in such an imaginary society within the domain of mind.
Keywords: Conceptual society (cultural homeland), feeling of insecurity, collective memory, Persian language and poetry, “culture” as a living thing, historical continuity, Iranian dynamism, dual-life culture.

Application de La Teledetection A l’etude des Ecoulements Souterrains Entre Les Aquiferes Discontinus du Socle Cristallin et Cristallophyllien et Les Aquiferes Continus du Bassin Sedimentaire du Sud Forestier de la Cote D’ivoire: Cas de la Region d’abidjan-Agboville
AHOUSSI Kouassi Ernest and KOFFI Yao Blaise, KOUASSI Amani Michel, SORO Gbombélé and SORO Nagnin

La région d’Abidjan-Agboville, située au Sud de la Côte d’Ivoire présente un climat de type équatorial dans la partie Sud et tropical humide dans la partie Nord, avec une pluviométrie interannuelle supérieure à 1500 mm. Malgré la présence de deux réservoirs aquifères constitués par les formations du bassin sédimentaire au Sud et celles du socle cristallin et cristallophyllien au Nord, cette région connaît d’énormes problèmes d’eau. Cette étude a pour objectif de mettre en évidence l’influence des eaux souterraines du socle dans la recharge des nappes du bassin sédimentaire. En effet, ces nappes servent à l’alimentation en eau des populations de la ville d’Abidjan. La méthodologie utilisée pour sa réalisation a fait appel aux images du satellite Landsat TM couplées à une étude piézométrique. Les techniques de traitement d’image et de cartographie ont permis d’établir la carte de la fracturation et la carte piézométrique de la zone d’étude. La carte de fracturation montre que les fractures les plus importantes se situent au Nord de la région en zone de socle. Les perméabilités induites calculées par la méthode de Francis (1970) sont faibles et varient de 1,02.10-8 à 4,69.10-7m/s, soit une moyenne de 1,97.10-7 m/s. La carte des perméabilités induites a permis d’identifier six (6) couloirs de circulation des eaux souterraines à fortes perméabilités. Ces couloirs constituent les zones de transfert des eaux du socle jusqu’au bassin sédimentaire. Ainsi, la ville d’Anyama située dans la zone de contact entre le socle et le bassin sédimentaire constitue l’exutoire principal de la majorité des eaux de ces couloirs. L’étude piézométrique montre que les hauts plateaux de la région nord de la commune d’Anyama constituent la zone privilégiée de la recharge de la nappe d’Abidjan. Les sens d’écoulement des eaux souterraines sont NS, NE-SO et NO-SE. Cette étude montre que les eaux des nappes du socle participent à la recharge de la nappe du Continental Terminal.
Keywords: Eaux souterraines, recharge, environnement, écoulement, piézométrie et Côte d’Ivoire.

Islam and International Law
Shariati Afzadi Hassan and Ghadiri Ghaleb

In this paper, we have investigated international law in view point of Islam. We have surveyed some literature of this subject. Investigations indicate that Islam has peaceful international law with justice objectives.
Keywords: Islam, International Law

So as to Comprehend and make Sense of Architectural Theory: To Define Space and Place

Arcihectural theory has been closely connected with the history of Architecture. Even though these two fields diverged, they are not fully independent from each other. Going through the previous examples in the historical frame to examine and grasp the meaning of a present theory is of the same importance as being informed with the previous practices to be able to establish an arhitectural theory. Architectural theory might also be considered within the scope of general theories of art. There is a common understanding on the basis of all of the arts. It has been thought that all the fields of art root in the same source. In many cases, it has also been assumed that architectural theory exists independent of the other fields of art. In this sense, it is acknowledged that pragmatism and functionality are fundamental notions to define and comprehend the architectural theory. As the first Architectural theorist Vitruvius told, Architectural theory is such a phenomenon that has a substantiality, functionality and elegance. This statement of Vitirius has thought over and gained recognition. In this study, it is laid stress on space and place which are significant instruments for architecture and architectural theory to find an expression. When the relation between space and place is emphasized, architectural theory which gains meaning by way of defining space and place, is being interpeted.
Keywords: Architecture, Architectural Theory, Space, Place.

Perspectives of ICT Geography of Regional IRAN: Obstacles and Advantages
Baratali Khakpour, Alireza Bidkhori and Amirali Kharazmi

The main objective of this paper is to study the role of ICT and e-learning in rural development of Iran. One of the main subjects in this field is creating and developing rural electronic communities, that has been focused in many developed and under developing countries in recent years. Of course, implementing electronic community in rural regions has encountered many problems such as rural people, not having enough knowledge and skills about ICT, and loss of appropriate communications lines. Meanwhile, the roles of government and NGOs are important. On the other hand, the outputs of electronic government, electronic learning, electronic business and electronic health services are unique advantages of this technology which can not be denied. So, in this chapter it is tried to present a comprehensive analysis about the problems, solutions and done activities of each of these cases in Iran and to suggest useful communications infrastructures focused on Iran’s conditions for sustainable rural development by using the role of ICT in e-learning and also the role of government in creating rural electronic communities as infrastructures for e-learning.
Keywords: Rural Electronic Community, e-learning Infrastructures, Rural ICTs, Regional Iran, Rural Development.

The Relationship between Parents` Addiction Background and Domestic Violence Rate toward Children
Mahmoud Yaghoubidoust and Masoud Ahmadinejad

This study aimed to assess the relationship between the parents` addiction background and their domestic violence toward children in Ahvaz city. It is a survey research was conducted randomly using questionnaires in Ahwaz city. The population consists of all male and female students from high school and their parents and the sample was 384 people which were selected via cluster sampling and calculated by Cochran`s formula. Child trauma questionnaire (CTQ) was used to gather data (Bernstein, 1995). Researcher-made questionnaire for parents` addiction background and demographics questionnaire were used. Statistical indexes such as percentage, mean, standard deviation, Pearson correlation, and t-test, regression analysis were used to data analyzing. The results obtained from the data analysis showed significant positive relationship between parents` addiction background and their domestic violence toward offspring. As well as a significant negative correlation was approved between parents` addiction background and family violence aspects (physically, emotionally, emotional -physical negligence) toward offspring. The findings indicated that parents` addiction background as a risk (vulnerable) factor can be effective in their tendency toward any types of domestic violence against children. So the therapeutic training and communication skills are necessary in this case for families with drug addiction.
Keywords: Domestic violence, parents` drug addiction background, Ahvaz

Life –Span Languages Deficits: Implementations for Family and Group Counselors
Mohamad Bagher Fahami

It was hypothesized that language of individuals changes with increasing of age due to various reasons. For the purpose of considering these possible changes and factors causing these changes, studies in the field done earlier were collected, reviewed analyzed and compared in details. The findings of this review of the studies proved the hypothesis in that language of individuals change across life span. Revealing the factors affecting and causing the change, the study presented some consider in their interview sessions to alleviate the deficits caused due to life span language change.
Keywords: Life –Span languages, Family, language of individuals

Development Curriculum on Climate Change in Nigeria: Implications for Gender and Development
Njoku Collins Chibuzo; Ilechukwu Leonard Chidi and Ugwuozo Felix Okechukwu

Developing curriculum on climate change in Nigeria is imperative because climate change is the defining sustainable development phenomenal challenge of the present age, with profound impact on men and women, their human security and livelihoods. The Rio 20 conference on sustainable development which includes climate change in Rio de Jeneiro Brazil and which pulled a large assembly of professionals, technocrats and world leaders was recently concluded in June 2012. Since education is the pivot of positive social change, human and national development and global competitiveness, it is important that a curriculum on climate change be developed and mainstreamed at all levels and forms of education in Nigeria. In developing a curriculum for climate change in Nigeria, gender mainstreaming is expedient. Men and women affect climate change and climate change affects women with critical and robust implications for gender and development. The paper attempts to demystify this dialectical nexus, using a critical analytical exploratory quantitative review research method with policy action oriented towards education for sustainable development (ESD) and environmental education (EE).
Keywords: Development, Curriculum, Climate Change, Sustainable Development, Environmental Education

Examining the Effect of Relationship Marketing Dimensions on Customer Loyalty: Evidence on Private and Public Sector Banks
Habibollah Danaei, Parisa Hatami, Masoud lajevardi and Sina Fakharmanesh

Today, customer satisfaction is not sufficient and companies should not only rely on customers’ satisfaction. They ought to ensure that their satisfied customers are loyal as well. In this paradigm, the purpose is the establishment of long-term relationship with the customer. Due to the significant advantages of relationship marketing, companies are moving from distinct individual interactions towards relational interaction. This research assesses impact of relationship marketing strategies including commitment, trust, communications, and conflict management on the loyalty of Bank Keshavarzi and Saman Bank’s customers. Research methodology, in terms of research purpose, is of applied type, and in terms of data gathering, of descriptive-survey type. Statistical population of this research includes 260 customers of the private bank Saman Bank and the state-owned bank Bank Keshavarzi within the city of Tehran. The sample, using random sampling methods, was selected. The constituents were prepared based on Likert’s 5-optional Scale. The constituents’ validity was calculated based on content validity and its reliability was calculated based on Cronbach Alpha, and the data were analyzed using T-test. Research results indicate a direct and significant relationship of commitment, trust, communication, and conflict management with customers’ loyalty in the both banks (p < 0.000). In addition, the research findings suggest that the variable communications with both banks is ranked in the first place and is of a high importance, and in the state banks, the variables conflict management, commitment and trust are respectively ranked next. In the private bank Saman Bank, the variables affecting customers’ loyalty are prioritized as follows: communication, commitment, conflict management, and trust.
Keywords: Relationship marketing, commitment, trust, communication, conflict management, customer loyalty.