American Journal of Scientific Research

Issue 89
July, 2013

The Importance and Necessity of Concurrent Jourisdiction for Granting Interim Measure Case: Islamic Republic of Iran
5-15
Reza Haghparast

Abstract:
One of the most important issues of iran civil procedure code which has always been dealt as a lacunas is the possibility of granting the interim measure by the arbitral tribunal. Currently, it is not possible to seek for interim measure through the court and arbitral tribunal. The reason of the impossibility is that article 311 of the civil procedure code holds that the capability of handling the request of interim measure lies in the jurisdiction of the court in which the dispute has been raised, and the reason of impossibility of seeking it through the arbitral tribunal is due to the absence of giving such power by the parties in the arbitration agreement. However, the point is that the granting interim measure is one of the legal requirements that may occur in any dispute. The courts and the arbitral tribunal must have the concurrent jurisdiction in granting such actions as well.
Keywords: Arbitral tribunal, interim measure, concurrent jurisdiction, parties agreement, enforcement of interim measure.


Making and Optimizing Copper Oxide Nano-Particles from Second-Hand Sources
16-23
Farideh Yousefi and Malihe Jalili

Abstract:
Hydro-methodological method was used to recycle copper from nickel metal battery and other wastes. The primary components of battery sample is shown in X ray florescence including 6.44 copper oxide, 47.52 nickel oxide, 5.46 magnesium oxide and 0.03 potassium oxide. In the first stage the battery interior sample is solved with adding hydrochloric about three hours in 87 degree centigrade. The second stage is to separate copper by adding iron powder. Due to copper inadequacy we used copper pipe in this research. In the third stage the copper pipe was solved using hydrochloric acid during two hours in 121 degree centigrade. NaCl 0.5 solution was made by gained copper chloride and sodium carbonate. To synthesize copper nano-particles the solid material were placed in 751 degree furnace for two hours. The results XRF, SEM and XDR verified the nano-particle synthesis.
Keywords: Copper oxide nano-particles, Hydro-methodological, Second-hand battery.


Sassanid Religion and the Decline
24-28
Zia Khazaei and Mahnaz Ghaljeh

Abstract:
Zoroastrianism was initially an universally obeyed and secular religion which emphasized on the man`s will along with afterlife, but gradually it was influenced by ascetic religious and philosophical circumstances and tended toward fatalism, anchorite and surrendering fate as well as paved the way for the religious declining of the Sassanid which was considered as a pillar for Sassanid dynasty establishment like feudalism.
Keywords: Declining, Zoroastrianism, Sassanid dynasty.


Production, Manufacturing System Operations, and Logistics Modeling the Metrics of Lean, Agile, and Leagility: An AHP-Based Approach
29-40
Mahboobe Sadat Haj Mirfattah Tabrizi and Javad Khamisabadi

Abstract:
The aim of this study was to develop a methodology for estimating whether an existing system can perform as a lean, agile, or leagile manufacturing system. We compared and identified the similarities and differences between leanness and agility, before developing leagility, by identifying the manufacturing features that were particularly affected by interdependent variables by preparing based on the conditions and characteristics that improved solutions to manufacturing practical operations in three case studies. The present article describes the three case studies and examines the three functions of lean, agile and leagile mechanisms by considering certain features. This study measured the available factors and characteristics to build a model based on the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), which was sent to firms and factories to acquire their responses. We determined whether the functions were applicable to the manufacturing systems in the three case studies. The characteristics of the three case studies did not respond to the same functions, which suggests that more details or factors should be developed that might affect their operations to improve manufacturing systems to meet the requirements of customers. The leanness, agility, and leagility features were examined in the three case studies. Using these operations to acquire precise results; may require more tests in more highly developed conditions in certain locations.
Keywords: Agility, Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), Leagility, Leanness, Supply chain.


Analyzing the Place of Myth in the Religion
41-46
Zahra Rezaei

Abstract:
This study is aimed at examining and determining the myth in religion according to the researchers’ opinions in the field of religion thoughts taking an epistemic approach and explaining three basic questions, i.e. the function, origin, and subject of the myth. This is a document-based study, which uses descriptive-analytic method as well. To collect the data, note-taking from the library and written materials was used. The results showed that religion and myth have been two basic human being’s doctrinal issues and have been considered by different scholars, who discover and interpret the message of the religious sciences in the light of mental and verbal evidences. Based on the semantics of these texts, different readings were achieved. To accept the myth, one should believe in God. If the historian of religion “Mircea Eliade” knows the myth not only the explanation of repetition or the return of a phenomenon, but also the explanation of it. He also believes that religion and myth come together; therefore, limiting the myth to a superficial explanation or a symbolic description of the natural phenomena causes that other available functions in the myth not to be considered appropriately.
Keywords: Myth, religion, Noah’s flood


Experimental Investigation of the Geotextile Effect on the Strength of Kaolinite Clay
47-59
Amir Kalhor and Kiarash Mirabi

Abstract:
This paper studies the mechanical properties of the Kaolinite Clay reinforced with two types of Geotextile using uniaxial and CBR tests. Soil reinforcing in these tests is carried out using Geotextile layers (1 to 4 layers). The layers are laid horizontally among the compressed soil layers. The samples in uniaxial tests are wet with five different percentages of humidity and in the CBR test they are moisturized with 23% of humidity. The results analysis show that increasing the maximum strength of the samples is a function of the type and number of Geotextile layers in the soil and on the whole, increasing the number of Geotextile layers will result in increasing the samples’ ductility and decreasing their secant module.
Keywords: Kaolinite Clay, Geotextile, uniaxial test, CBR test, reinforced soil.


Developing the Capability of Local Management Based on Iranian-Islamic Criteria (Case Study: The Local Management of Sari)
60-80
Hamid Reza Saremi and Mohammad Rashidi Alashti

Abstract:
The local management based on “conducting” people’s partnership and creating many chances to achieve the fair interests in local domains, have strengthen the social and political pillars of the country according to the political maturity and democracy stability and the “political system” and is regarded as a teaching course to be politician and manager, in addition to be an appropriate bed for accepting the culture by citizens. The system of local management in Iran, due to focusing on the political-directorial structure, is in comparison with the individual systems and the national-regional systems have a linear-vertical direction that has led it to a passive management. Utilizing the Iranian-Islamic basics and universal theories related to the urban and local management gives us a set of standards and criteria to stabilize the local management with a specific approach, that is an Iranian-Islamic approach in this research and it has a significant influence on improving the role, position, and function of local management in the city. Therefore, at first, the Iranian-Islamic dimensions of local management that does not have any comprehensive definition as well as its international accepted dimensions are derived and based on the standards and appropriate criteria of local managements are edited. These criteria have been measured and evaluated at the status quo and they have been analyzed through the use of statistical methods. This research that is done with a functional aim and is written and edited through the cross-sectional survey has found out that actions such as submitting some parts of the state tenures to the local management, creating a united urban management with the centrality of municipality, editing and operating the strategic document of giving services based on the Iranian-Islamic pattern, editing the structure of local management based on the population, economic, and geographical specifications can have an effective role in developing the capability of local management.
Keywords: Local management, Iranian-Islamic city, Sari, Iranian-Islamic pattern.


Pedestrian Network Development Planning in Kish Island Case Study: Mirmohanna Walkway
81-90
Hassan Ali Laghai and Mona Loghman

Abstract:
Day by day residents of urban areas find themselves more dependent on automobiles and this study attempts to explore its environmental consequences and negative effects on normal life of people in cities. Urban development plans and especially passages and arteries widening plans not only have failed to change this negative process, but also encouraged people to use more automobiles in urban areas (heavy traffic jams in mega cities). Nowadays having appropriate spaces for walking in cities, rather than driving, is one of the most important objectives of human-oriented cities as well as sustainable urban development in urbanism. Regarding the needs of a walker in Kish Island, this research, investigates the features and theoretical indices in search for dealing approaches in present city contexts with a humanistic approach. By extracting statistical and collected data using various questionnaires as well as comparative and inductive studies with modern programs of urbanism, the researchers attempted on locating of motion axes and find presenting how to organize walkers’ movement in Island. SWOT mechanism for searching suitable approaches was used as the useful instrument of the study. Finally by presenting necessary strategies, the strategic planning of solutions was achieved.
Keywords: Walkway, Sustainable Tourism and Ecotourism, Sustainable Urban Development, Pedestrian Network, Strategic Planning


Strategy for Sustainable Urban Development Guidelines for Tehran
91-96
Hassan Ali Laghai, Mona Loghman and Nabiollah Kolbadi

Abstract:
Why sustainable development? Are Iran’s cities sustainable now? Have we been able to stay loyal to our international obligations of Instruction 21 of Rio De Janeiro (1992) and Istanbul (1996) as well as other international obligations to achieve sustainable housing and city (Micro and Macro Architecture)? Considering the growth in Iran’s population which is a consequence of appropriate and sustainable planning, future seems worrisome. The population perspective of 120,000,000 requires having 800 or 1000 sustainable cities. This attitude was presented in Bam Urban Sustainable Development Charter in association with different experts in recent years. But actions different than what we have expected, were taken. Unfortunately a set of repeated routine works are being done to remove problems. This article analyzes the international findings and conventions that have been confirmed by Iran Management System. It is also an attempt to discuss the horizons, methods, indices, and practical mechanism of achieving urban sustainability in order to present a practical approach in this area by using analytical-comparative method of applicable suggestions. Suggestions are made on how to make a new start in preparing urban sustainable development programs and how to administer them. This issue is the result of forty years of Teaching and research which is presented in an article.
Keywords: Sustainable urban development, applied plans, administrative mechanism, public participation


A Survey on Over Confidence under Increasing Inflation in Tehran Stock Exchange and Tehran Real Estate Market
97-108
Majid Shakeri, Reyhaneh Sadat Tabatabei Yeganeh and Reza Teharni

Abstract:
Iranian macroeconomic status has vastly changed during 2012 because of sanctions and mismanaged fiscal policies and Investors’ expectations and overconfidence level totally revolved. Glaser’s measure scores overconfidence in three aspects: miscalibration, better than average effect, and illusion of control. This study tests if there is any significant difference in distinct aspect of overconfidence scores, calculated in 2011 and 2012. On the other hand we measure the overconfidence scores in real estate market and make a comparison between real estate market extracted overconfidence data and that of stock market. This study shows decreasing trend in general knowledge score in stock market. We use T test to analyze questionnaires collected in stock market and real estate market. The “better than average” score in stock market are low but more than scores calculated in2011. Results supports that mean illusion of control score in 2012 stock market is lower than the year 2011. T test outputs verify more general knowledge score in stock market than real estate market, originated from more passive behavior in real estate investors. There is a paradoxical situation in better than average score comparison in real estate and stock market dependent on the way of measurement. Less liquidity risk in stock market may explain more IOC score in stock market than real estate market.
Keywords: Miscalibration, better than average effect, illusion of control, overconfidence.


Management of Ovarian Dermoid Cysts at Jordan University Hospital: A Teaching Hospital Experience
109-115
Kamil Mosa Fram, Shawqi S.Saleh, Fawwaz A. Kazaleh, Firas Obiedat, Osama Samarah and Nadir M. Al-Bsoul

Abstract:
Purpose: This research concentrates on evaluating the best and the safest method of treating patients diagnosed to have ovarian dermoid cysts. Setting: This analysis took place at the University of Jordan hospital. Material and methods: The retrospective records were reviewed for over 2 years (from January 2011 to January 2013). The sample of study included a total number of 23 patients with benign ovarian dermoid. Ten patients (43.48%) presented with abdominal pain, 8 patients (34.78%) were accidently found to have this kind of ovarian cysts, 3 patients (13.04%) presented with dysparunia, and 2 patients (08.70%) presented with abnormal vaginal bleeding. Eleven patients (47.83%) were found to have right sided ovarian dermoid, while 7 patients (30.43%) were found to have bilateral, and 5 patients (21.74%) were found to have left sided one. Conclusion: Laparotomy and ovarian cystectomy were performed for 20 patients (86.95%) without rupturing or leakage of the content, which seems to be superior to other methods of management.
Keywords: Ovarian dermoid, laparotomy, abdominal pain.


Joint Detection and Discrimination of CDMA2000, WiMAX and Frequency Hopping Signals
116-124
Ammar Abdul-Hamed Khader, Ahmed M. Husein Shabani and Mirza Tariq Beg

Abstract:
With the advent of next generation mobile data networks, ubiquitous, high-speed, mobile Internet access has become a reality. However, the concurrent development of multiple mobile data technologies has led to the existence of overlapping, mutually incompatible mobile data networks. This paper extending the work of Bouncing Detector that used in detecting Frequency Hopping signals, to detect and discriminate other important signals like CDMA2000 and WiMAX. The results show that this detector can discriminate among these different signals easily and the performance guaranteed.
Keywords: Bouncing Detector (BD), Hopping Rate Detector (HRD), Frequency Hopping (FH), CDMA2000, IEEE802.16-2004 OFDM (WiMAX).


The Impacts of SMS on Formal Writing: A Case Study Among the University Students of Comsats Vehari Campus
125-138
NaziaSuleman, Iram RubabSial, SaydAbrarHussain Shah and Hafiz SajjadHussain

Abstract:
SMS appears to have influenced the Standard English. SMS language had greatly influenced the Standard English language used by the students because of its brevity and conciseness. SMS language is in vogue because of its distinguishing features of easy and quick way of communication. A questionnaire comprised of open and close ended questions was administered to check the influence of the SMS language in students of COMSATS Vehari. Findings strongly suggest that abbreviated language is very obvious in writing English.


Role of Countryside Women in Decision Making in Different Family Matters
139-143
Mazhar Abbas, Asma Kashif Shahzad, Rafia Waqar, Wasim Abbas and Syed Abrar Hussain Shah

Abstract:
The research was conducted to examine the role of countryside women in decision making in different family matters. Six villages of mouza kotla rahim ali shah tehsil jatoi (Dist. Muzaffar Garh), chosen at random, constituted the world of this study. Two married female from each of the twenty four households arbitrarily chosen from each of the six villages was face-to-face interviewed, via pretested interviewing calendar. Additionally some individual information about the respondents, 15 family affairs subjectively listed in the questionnaire to collect the data concerning the degree of participation of women in decision making process. The participation of rural women in decision making was resolute on the basis of extent of discussion of husbands with their spouses in respect of different family affairs. The discussion among (under “frequently” discussion category) the respondents and their spouses to take decision in many family matters was more or less 43% under the category of “a little bit” discussion among the respondents and their spouses, the array varied from about 25 to 38%, the average being 22.66%. A huge majority (75%) of respondents up till now believed in leading position of husband in making significant decisions in family matter. Some respondents decided that they were happy with their position as housewives.
Keywords: Arbitrarily, Participants, Countryside, Family Matters


The Study of Relationship between Free Float Stock Less than 25% and the Stock Returns of Listed Companies in Tehran Stock Exchange
144-147
Mehdi Najafi and Farshid Asgari

Abstract:
Investors always look for a good return on their investments. Therefore they attempt to find some information to be effective on their investment returns. The main objective of this research is to find the relationship between free float stock less than 25% and the stock returns of listed companies in Tehran Stock Exchange. In line with this goal, 30 eligible companies were selected from 6 periods of 50 best companies from 2011 until the end of summer 2012. In this study the independent variable is the free float stock and the dependent variable is the total return on stocks. To test this hypothesis, the Pearson correlation coefficient was used. The obtained results indicate that there is no significant relationship between free float stock and stock returns in Tehran Stock Exchange.
Keywords: Free float stock, Tehran Stock Exchange, Pearson correlation coefficient, stock returns.