American Journal of Scientific Research

Issue 90
July, 2013

Studying the Role of Libraries in the Progression of Culture in Samanids’ Period
Farahnaz Kohan

Library has been the symbol of growth and development of science and culture among the societies and nations. The libraries were more important in Samanids’ period and were regarded as the most important cultural institutions. The main aim of the present study is analyzing the role of libraries in development and progression in the Samanids’ period. The method of study is historical. The data were collected through library system, and searching the sources and note-taking. The results show that libraries had a great effect on the growth of culture of the society. On one hand, they provided the research instruments and scientific discussion and on the other hand, they were a training foundation where the teachers and students could get together. Furthermore, by paving the way of public studies, they helped a lot to the cultural and scientific growth of the society. Placing the libraries of Samanids’ age as a place and base for writing, translating, and a shelter for the researchers and writers and the advent of bookmakers in different forms including calligraphists and the owner of types of transcription arts such as biding, gilding, and paging layout were all the symbols of cultural growth in the society.
Keywords: Samanids, Libraries, endowment, organizing the library, culture, knowledge.

Designing a Pattern for Apparent Competencies in Operational Managers' Behavior
Ali Asqar Fani, Ardashir Shiri, Adel Azar and Seyed Reza Seyed Javadin

The aim study is to explain and prioritize apparent and observable competencies in operational manager's behavior. This research is a descriptive, developmental and quantitative method. The main tool for data collecting is a questionnaire with 95% Cronbach's alpha. Statistical samples included all of professors in management from Tehran universities and Iran post-revolution governors. Sampling methods were purposive or judgmental sampling and snow ball sampling. In order to analyze, 150 questionnaires were selected as samples and then analyzed. Data analysis was done by applying factor analysis and Friedman's ranking in software environment of Excel and SPSS. The conclusions led to establish a pattern with 10 clusters and 64 components. Components' ranking revealed that components of: 1.Performance evaluation, 2. Having knowledge about legal issues, 3.Having courage and decisiveness in decision making, 4.having skills in mentoring and supervising, 5. Being able to make decisions, were dedicated top 5 ranks of components.
Keywords: Competency, Operational managers, Observable behavior, Factor analysis.

A Case Study on the Relationship between Human Resources Management and Business Strategies Alignment with the Effectiveness of the Human Resources Management (Nayer Pars Mapna Company)

Eliza Baradaran Shokouhi, Hadi Teimouri and Alireza Shirvani

The development of human resources (HR) plays a crucial role in determination and support of Business strategies (BS). The present paper aimed at studying the relationship between human resource management (HRM) and Business strategies alignment with the effectiveness of HRM practices (HRMP) as there was a need for further research in this area. This descriptive-survey study has an applied objective. The data collection is done through library research and applying a researcher-made questionnaire to confirm the research hypothesis. The statistical population of the study consisted of managers and experts at Nayer Pars Mapna Company; the subjects were selected by random sampling method. The findings indicated that there would be a meaningful relationship between HR and Business strategies alignment and the effectiveness of HRM practices in areas such as training, staffing, performance appraisal and compensation.
Keywords: Business strategies, human resources strategies, alignment, human resources management practices effectiveness.

Fractional Treatment for Einstein Lagrangian Density

Omar.K. Jaradat and Emad. K. Jaradat

The fractional form of the Einstein lagrangian density is presented using the Left Caputo fractional definition. Euler lagrangian equations in fractional form are obtained from this lagrangian density. The fractional Hamiltonian density and the fractional creation and annihilation operators are used to construct the fractional CCRs. Finally some conserved quantities like Hamiltonian density and momentum density are derived using the fractional canonical stress tensor.
Keywords: Fractional Canonical Quantization, Fractional stress energy tensor, Fractional equation of motion, Einstein Lagrangian Density, Caputo fractional derivatives.

Ecotourism Development Strategy in Hormoz Island using SWOT Model

Homa Zakeri and Farah Habib

Ecotourism which is based on environmental capabilities and natural resources is able to provide the field for economic, social and cultural development of local communities by attracting tourists. It can also provide a solution for the optimal use during the conservation of areas under the management if it is combined with the careful planning and regions feasibility in terms of demand, and the opinions of people (visitors and locals). Hormozs land, located on the Persian Gulf, is selected as the subject of this paper due to its long coast line and taking the advantage of cultural and historical heritage and environmental attractions. In this regard, this paper uses the analytical-descriptive method and introduces the values of Hormoz Island in line with the Ecotourism development on the island. Then it used the analysis based on SWOT model and provides strategies for ecotourism development on the island. It also concluded that an integrated management is needed in the coastal areas to balance the fields of architecture, planning and environment, so that the ecotourism development may arise.
Keywords: Ecotourism, Hormoz Island, SWOT, Development Strategy

Budd-Chiari Syndrome and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus – Diagnosis and Treatment: A Case Report

Eilyad Issabeagloo, Ali Ghavidel, Fariba Nasiri Milani, Shokouh Khaknezhad and Sahar Khoshdeli

Objective: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a rheumatologic autoimmune disease that damages the tissues of the body through the autoantibodies. The disease is clinically along with acute or gradual onset, recrudescence and blackout periods. SLE predominantly affects young women in childbearing age but both sexes in all ages are at risk for this disease. Budd- Chiari Syndrome is Major hepatic veins obstruction or inferior vena cava (IVC) especially in inside liver and in above liver segments. This syndrome may be present acutely, with rapid enlargement of the liver, ascites, and abdominal pain. Case report: The patient is a 23 year-old woman, married and has one child. After eight months of diagnosis of SLE and Medical treatment in this period, she referred to hospital due to digestive problems, abdominal swelling and pain and full tests of blood, urine, endoscopy, ultrasound, X-rays and CT scans were performed on patients and the results demonstrate the Budd- Chiari Syndrome . Results: According to the experimental results, Anti nuclear Antibody (ANA) = positive, Anemia, Hypoalbuminemia, proteinuria, hyper bilirubinemia Bailey and several other parameters were observed. Imaging results also showed venous thrombosis in the IVC. Patient with a very bad abdominal pain and ascites and underlying SLE disease referred to the hospital. After performing clinical examinations and various tests Budd- Chiari Syndrome was diagnosed. For the treatment TAP was used in order to control ascites fluid and various medications. After 2 weeks of diagnosis, patients got nephrotic syndrome. Conclusion: Patient's response to medicines: Cyclophosphamide, Prednisolone, Warfarin, Furosmide and Spironolactone are positive and the patient's condition is improving.
Keywords: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus – Budd Chiari Syndrome- Nephrotic Syndrome.

Logical-Mathematical Intelligence and Its Relationship with English Language Proficiency
Ebrahim Khodadady and Beheshteh Shakhsi Dastgahian

This study explored the relationship between logical-mathematical intelligence and English language proficiency. To this end, out of the eight sections comprising the Multiple Intelligences Developmental Assessment Scales designed by Shearer (1994), its Persian logical-mathematical scale (LMS) was administered to two hundred and five participants who took the Test of English as a Foreign Language held and called MSRT by the Ministry of Science, Research and Technology in Iran. When the data on the LMS were subjected to Principal Axis Factoring and the extracted factors were rotated via Varimax with Kaiser Normalization, sixteen out of seventeen indicators comprising the scale loaded on six latent variables (LVs) having the initial eigenvalues of one and higher, i.e., Math Skill, Problem Solving, Natural Curiosity, Number Memory, Math Application, and System Invention. When the LMS and its LVs were correlated with the listening, structure, and reading subtests of the MSRT, the scale and its Math Application LV correlated significantly but negatively with the reading subtest. The results are discussed and suggestions are made for future research.
Keywords: Intelligence, language proficiency, factors, reading comprehension ability.

Considering Psychological Characteristics by Parenting Stress Test among Parents of Primary School Students of Ilam Province

Pardis Heidari, Shahpour Kordi and Ali Hemmat Ghalavand

The aim of study: considering psychological characteristics of parents' tension test upon primary students' parents. The statistical community and sampling method: statistical community consists of whole parents of students in the regions of education center at Tehran (consist of south, north, west and center) in the academic year of 1386-87 by the method of multi stage sampling, the numbers of these persons were 500 in this research. Measurement tools: the questionnaire is 120 questions related to tension index of parents that consist of 13 mini scales as follow: child territory, compatibility, acceptance, ambition, child’s temper, inattention and empowerment. The parents characteristics consist of: depression, affection, role limits, sense of ability, social retreat, relations, spouse and child health and 19 voluntary laws by name of life tension and its numbering is based on of 5 degree spectrum of Likert. The study plan: results of data analyzing have showed that: calculated reliability coefficient of whole questionnaire is 0.93 and also for considering validity, the study used the method of analyzing main parameters and agent analyzing by use of Varimax circulation. For considering minor questions, the study used one-way variance analysis (ANOVA) and the results are meaningful. Then the norm table calculation was prepared according to gender (male and female).
Keywords: Stress, Parenting Stress, Psychological Characteristics, Primary school.

A New Research on Techniques of Equipment Supply Chain Cooperation Model Based on Softman

Monire Norouzi

Cooperation mechanism and tactics of equipment supply chain based on softman is studied in this paper. An equipment supply chain cooperation model based on softman is constructed and then three kinds of equipment supply chain cooperation mechanism are set up. At last, equipment supply chain cooperation tactics based on softman is proposed which will speed up equipment supply chain intelligent managing process.
Keywords: Softman; equipment supply chain; cooperation model; cooperation mechanism and tactics

Types of Growth Regulators and Carbohydrate Source: Essential Nutrients for Induction of Wheat Embryogenic Callus
D.C. Tinak Ekom, M.N. Benchekroun, S.M. Udupa, D. Iraqi and M.M. Ennaji

Somatic embryogenesis, which is still the method of choice for tissue culture, regeneration and transformation of wheat, is largely and highly considered not only genotype and explant type dependent but also culture medium dependent. Among the essential nutrients for the production of embryogenic callus which is directly related to the regeneration capacity, the choice and the level of growth regulators, as well as the carbohydrate source marked significative effects on somatic embryo formation when they were used in the callus induction and maintenance medium. Therefore, this review will focus mainly on these two factors.
Keywords: Carbohydrate source, Embryogenic callus, Growth regulators, Wheat.

Investigating the Impact of Organizational Culture on the Performance of Insurance Companies in Iran

Parastoo Moradi, Ali Safari and Mohammad Saleh Torkestani

Identifying culture of Iranian insurance companies, as one of the aspects of the organization, can assist them in selecting the right strategy. The analyzed statistical society was the managers and vice presidents of 15 Iranian private insurance companies. The effect of organizational culture test was conducted through patterning structural equations. The results indicate that organizational culture impacts competitive strategy directly and organizational performance indirectly. This study confirmed that a firm’s competitive advantage can be enhanced by culture and strategy fit. Strategy fit could also moderate the relationship between organizational culture and organizational performance.
Keywords: Organizational Culture, Organizational Performance, Competitive Strategy, Insurance Companies.
JEL Classification Codes: C12 – G22 - L10 - L22.

Experimental Implementation of Sliding Mode Control for PV Grid Connected System with Voltage Oriented Control

Rym Marouani and Abdelkader Mami

With the advent of next generation mobile data networks, ubiquitous, high-speed, mobile Internet access has become a reality. However, the concurrent development of multiple mobile data technologies has led to the existence of overlapping, mutually incompatible mobile data networks. This paper extending the work of Bouncing Detector that used in detecting Frequency Hopping signals, to detect and discriminate other important signals like CDMA2000 and WiMAX. The results show that this detector can discriminate among these different signals easily and the performance guaranteed.
Keywords: PV grid-connected system, buck-boost DC-DC converter, voltage inverter, sliding mode control, direct power control, experimental implementation.

Analysis of CRLH-TL with its Review in Microwave Filters Design
Ahmed Hameed Reja, Syed Naseem Ahmad and Murooj Nadhom Mohammed Ali

In this paper, an analysis study of right-handed (RH), left-handed (LH) and composite right/left-handed (CRLH) structures with respect to phase constant (ß), characteristics impedance (ZB), phase velocity (vp), group velocity (vg), effective permittivity (eeff) and permeability (µeff) are presented. A survey of the different kinds of microwave frequencies filters based on resonant-type composite right/left-handed transmission line (CRLH-TL). Zeroth-order resonators (ZORs), complementary split ring resonators (CSRRs), stepped impedance resonator (SIR) or other resonators as a resonance type approaches are useful particles for the design of all kinds of reviewing filters. The different results presented the design possibilities of compact microwave filters with different bandwidth frequencies. Easy fabrications, high selectivity, low cost, and good performances are the main factors to design microwave filters with this approach. Balanced CRLH-TLs exhibit typically broad bandwidths that are useful for the synthesis of high-pass filters or ultra-wideband-pass filters (UWBPFs).
Keywords: Composite Right/Left-Handed (CRLH), Transmission Lines (TLs), Metamaterials, Microwave Filter, Zeroth-order Resonator (ZOR), Complementary Split Ring Resonator (CSRR)

Allowance for Loan Losses as a Tool of Earning Management by Commercial Banks in Pakistan

Said Shah and S.M. Amir Shah

Non Performing loans have been one of the most severe problems being faced by banks, for which a proper and accurate provision must be made. The amount of allowance for loan losses must be such to meet the requirements of all the parties interested in it vis-à-vis State Bank of Pakistan, auditors, bank managements and share holders. The study investigates to provide evidence whether or not the allowance for loan losses is being used as a tool of earning management by commercial banks in Pakistan using data of three public and two private sector banks covering a period of six years from 1999 to 2004.
Keywords: Non performing loans, earning management, allowance for loan losses

Architectural Modelling for Efficient Multifunctional Spaces to Meet Energy-Saving Goals and Objectives for Contemporary Architecture of Iran
Mohammadjavad Mahdavinejad, Sima Rezaei Ashtiani, Mohsen Rostami, Sorayya Rostami and Mohammad Ghorbani Birgani

Energy saving is one of the most important movements in contemporary architecture, especially in contemporary architecture of Iran in order to meet clean energy and sustainable environment. This paper is to design an architectural modeling for efficient multi-purpose spaces to meet energy-saving goals and objectives for contemporary architecture of Iran as well as other developing countries. The research looks for the most characteristics of multifunctional spaces and buildings to find the most important strategy to meet energy saving goals and objectives in multifunctional spaces in Iran and other developing countries. The results of the paper show that if prerequisites of efficient multifunctional spaces considered in architectural design, energy-saving goals and objectives can be met in buildings which designed and developed in contemporary architecture of Iran.
Keywords: Net Income, Comprehensive Income, Performance Evaluation, Other Comprehensive Income Items.