American Journal of Scientific Research

Issue 91
Aug, 2013

Causality Test and Effect of Direct Foreign Investment and Economic Release on Non-Petroleum Exports of Iran
Setareh Mansouri and Mohammad Daneshnia

The country’s economic dependency on petroleum incomes and derivation of this class of products made the country is affected strongly by the fluctuations and instabilities of pricing these products. Therefore, non-petroleum export development seems to be necessary. This research seeks to investigate the causality and effect of direct foreign investment and economic release and real currency price on non-petroleum exports of Iran. Annual statistics during 1357 to 1387, vector auto-regressive method and Toda – Yamamoto causality were used. the results show a meaningful and positive effect of economic release, foreign direct investment and real currency price on non-petroleum exports. Also a causality relationship existence from real currency price and openness level of economy to non-petroleum exports is proven.
Keywords: Non-petroleum export, foreign direct investment, economic release, vector auto regressive method and Toda – Yamamoto’s causality.

Good Governance in Iran, a Critical Analysis of Requirements and Obstacles
Roohollah Rahimi and Mohammad Moghadamfard

Governance and good governance can be undoubtedly mentioned as frequently used words in development literature. As old as human being civilization, the notion of government can be defined as ‘the process of decision-making and the process by which decisions are implemented (or not implemented)’. Taking into account two different sides of governance, meaning bad and good, would make the importance of this notion as a crucial factor to manage public resources and ensure fundamental rights of individuals. To put simply good governance means factors, standards and process through which governments exercise public functions, manage public resources and ensure human and fundamental rights. There are some requirements for good governance to be complied completely such as Transparency, Responsibility, Accountability, Participation, The rule of law and Responsibility. This article seeks to illustrate foresaid requirements and examine how far these requirements are observed in Iran legal system and what are the obstacles for complying them. For instance how far direct and indirect (through representatives or intermediate institutions) participation is provided for individuals in Iran legal system or how far and through which mechanisms, Iran government is responsible and observes transparency in making decisions.
Keywords: Iran legal system, Good governance, Governing bodies, citizens’ rights.

Public Utility of Infectious Equine Disease Epidemiological Surveillance in Morocco through a Network (RESPE): Case of Equine Influenza Virus (H3N8)

M. Boukharta, M. Elharrak and Moulay Mustapha Ennaji

Equine influenza virus (EIV) is a highly contagious viral associated disease of the upper respiratory tract of horses. EIV can be controlled by vaccination. However, the evaluation of the effectiveness of the vaccine requires a perfect knowledge of the circulating strains in Morocco. The installation of a network of epidemiological surveillance of equine diseases (RESPE) whose public utility has been recognized in several European countries, allows the updating of the information on the frequency, location of the epizootic outbreaks of equine influenza and the determination in real time of the genetic characteristics of circulating strains and their potential evolution. In this article, we present the target population, the technical means necessary for biological samples and the procedure of this surveillance system. The coverage rate was estimated according to the specificity and the distribution of the equine population in the country. The installation of a national network of epidemiological surveillance of equine influenza enables the updating of our epidemiological data and isolation in real time of the equine influenza virus. In the perspective this network would provide a solid platform to offer researchers a wide range of extensive virological research.
Keywords: Equine influenza, vaccination, antigenic evolution, epidemiological surveillance, network, acute respiratory diseases.

Examining the Adoption Rights in the Laws of Iran and Germany

Shahabeddin NasseriPoshtDarbandi

Supporting the children’s law is a mission that has been emphasized by legal studies due to the children’s inability to analyze the qualities and consequently misusing this situation and invalidity or impermeability of children’s contracts shows an appropriate example in analyzing this aspect of support. The complicated personal relationships and the necessity that the lawyers have felt about supporting children’s law resulted in a new discipline called “children’s law.” Adoption is an institution that has a long history among different societies and historical civilizations in different forms. The researchers have mentioned different reasons for it. Most of researchers believe that adoption has roots in economic and military needs and sometimes material and mental factors have created it; at the status quo, this institution is based on mental needs of the family and parentless children. Adoption is a legal institution based on which a special relationship is created between the adopted child and the adoptive parents. This issue has a long experience during the history of law and has been focused in different periods with different aims. This legal establishment has been accepted in the laws of western countries in complete or incomplete forms. In Iran, despite of the acceptance history of this institution in Sassanids and its validity for Zoroastrians, it was abolished with the advent of Islam; however, due to the individual and social benefits, the urgent need of society and the establishing justice and supporting parentless children, a center was revived under the title of “guardianship of parentless children” with clear legal effects.
Keywords: Adoption laws, Iran, Islam, Germany.

The Relationship between Market Orientation and Customers’ Loyalty in Private Banks at Bandar Abbas (Iran)

Ellahe Ghahri Shirin Abadi, Yassan Allah Pourashraf, Esfandiar Mohammadi and Mahdi Dehghani Soltani

Today, customers’ royalty is considered as the key of commerce success. By improving customers’ loyalty, market share and the profitability of the organization would increase. Market understanding by planning and adopting proper strategies to make customers loyal and to increase the rate of their loyalty would create long term interests for service organizations. Consequently, the purpose of present study is to investigate the relationship between market orientation and customer’s loyalty in active private banks at Bandar Abbas. Research population consists of managers, deputies and customers of these banks. Sample volume was 228 determined by simple random sampling and unlimited community formula. Data collection method was a standard questionnaire for its reliability, Chronbach’s alpha was used. Library and field study methods were used to collect data. In terms of purpose, this is an applied study and it is a descriptive – correlation one in terms of gathering needed data. To analyze questionnaire data in deductive statistic sector, Pearson and Spearman correlation tests as well as SPSS 16. The findings indicate that there is a significant and positive relationship between market orientation and customer’s loyalty in active private banks at Bandar Abbas.
Keywords: Market orientation, customer’s loyalty, private bank

Study Disputes Oil and Gas Industry and Methods for Resolving Disputes

Alireza Hassani and Mina Ghelichkhan

The oil and gas industry has experienced tremendous growth in recent years. This Paper looks at recent trends in dispute resolution in the Oil and Gas Industries. There is probably little doubt that the two major methods of dispute resolution are still litigation in the national courts and international arbitration. But it is clear that other dispute resolution processes are being used, amongst them ADR and Expert Determination. To state the obvious, which type of dispute mechanism will be used in any particular case will depend upon the precise nature of the dispute: a jurisdiction dispute arising out of an international contract is likely to be settled by litigation rather than, say, expert determination. The resolution of international oil and gas commercial disputes in regards to reserves determination is frequently relegated to the final and binding determination of an expert. Although expert determination (ED) is often the preferred dispute resolution method because of the technical nature of the issues and the appeal of a more timely decision than international arbitration, expert determination does not enjoy the same level of recognition or enforceability as an international arbitral award. Also, in the particular technical dispute area of reserves expert redetermination, lack of harmonization of classification systems in reserves estimates brings additional issues to consider in international oil and gas commercial disputes. This paper is a review of current literature in the areas of expert determination in international oil and gas technical disputes, reserves classifications utilized throughout the international industry and uncertainty in reserves estimates. It will focus on the uncertainties which arise with the use of expert determination in international oil and gas disputes. These uncertainties relate to the immaturity of international law in the area of expert determination and to the lack of harmonization of reserves classification in the international oil and gas industry .The uncertainty of the factors related to expert determination in the resolution of international oil and gas reserves disputes, however, does not mitigate the effectiveness of this dispute resolution method. Rather, with knowledge of the uncertainties, expert determination may be utilized more effectively to resolve the financially weighty reserves disputes of international oil and gas agreements.
Keywords: Settlement of Disputes, oil, Oil contracts, gas.

Achieve the Goal of Pouring Molten Copper on Iron Blocks to form a Periodic Layers
Yaser Hadi

Recently, a great deal of scientific research based on The Holy Quran have spread and culminated. These studies discovered many facts that The Holy Quran mentioned over fourteen centuries ago. Still a lot is being discovered in unlimited realms. All of these discoveries and more are explained and shown by Allah throughout the verses of The Holy Quran. Establishing that He is the only one worthy of worship and the Quran is the truth from Him the Almighty. The Almighty said: ?We will show them our signs in the horizons and within themselves until it becomes clear to them that it is the truth. But is it not sufficient concerning your Lord that He is, over all things, a Witness?. There is no doubt that the story of Dhul-Qarnain and Gog and Magog and the building of the landfill occupied the work of many biography writers. On my part, I was always in a state of constant searching for the latest information about this topic; I read literature about this Qur'anic story, regarding the landfill plates and the reason why molten copper was casted upon iron to form the so called periodical plates. In brief, the most important findings of this research can be summarized as: landfills must be balanced, strong and harsh to bear the weight placed upon them. However, Allah the All-mighty guaranteed landfill strength through periodic arrangement of its plates. This arrangement therefore ensures there stability through each plate that is attached to its counterpart. Therefore, if there is a significant vibration and deflection of the iron plates, the two copper plates support and reduce the impact of these vibrations; and hence the landfill is more balanced.
Keywords: Periodic Layers, vibration, deflection.

Developing Pharmaceutical Sales Force Collective Psychological Capital through Group Authentic Leadership

Muhammad Ehsan Malik, Basharat Naeem and Aroosh Idrees

Most scholarly work on collective psychological capital was undertaken in China and US context. However, empirical evidence of theoretical relationship between group leader’s authentic leadership (AL), an emerging leadership style, and group collective psychological capital (CPsyCap) is scarce pertinently in pharmaceutical selling context of Pakistan. To address the call of research in this domain we explored whether or not group authentic leadership and its characteristics have any role in building CPsyCap of pharmaceutical sales force groups operating in Lahore region of Pakistan. Bivariate and stepwise multiple regression analyses of the data, collected through questionnaire from 55 sales force groups of 16 multinational pharmaceutical companies, revealed that group leader’s authentic leadership and its all characteristics, except internalized moral perspective, had significant moderate impact in fostering group CPsyCap. Implications for practice and research are also presented.
Keywords: Collective Psychological Capital, Authentic Leadership, Group, Pharmaceutical Sales force, Pakistan.

Role of Integrated Marketing Communication in Customer Satisfaction and Brand Trust

Muhammad Ehsan Malik, Basharat Naeem and Madiha Munawar

Customer driven marketing and increased competition has led towards creating synergy in all sort of marketing communication reaching customers at any contact point (Winer, 2008, Keller, 2009). In line with this emerging trend, we examined role of integrated marketing communication (IMC) of mobile service providers in satisfying their customers and building brand trust. For this purpose, questionnaire-based survey was undertaken to collect data from undergraduate and graduate students of a business school of a university in Lahore (Pakistan). Bivariate regression and correlation analyses confirmed our expectations that IMC had significant positive impact on customer satisfaction and brand trust. Implications of the findings for marketing management and future research are presented, too.
Keywords: Integrated Marketing Communication, Customer Satisfaction, Brand Trust

Pattern of Gynaecological Malignancies at Jordan University Hospital; A Teaching Hospital Experience
Kamil Mosa Fram, Rawand Faried, Emad Tarawneh and Adil Al-Rabadi

This study was undertaken with the aim of determining the pattern of gynaecological malignancies treated at the Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics at Jordan University Hospital (JUH) as a tertiary teaching hospital. The age, gravidity and parity distribution, weight, site and type of malignancy, stage of disease at presentation were all analyzed via a retrospective observational review. In total, 79 cases of gynaecological cancers were managed from January 2011 to May 2013. Overall, the mean age for cancer patients was 55.49 years (range 27 to 82 years). Uterine cancer was the most common, constituting approximately 45.57% of gynaecological cancers, followed by ovarian cancer coming at 37.97%, cervical cancer at 10.13%, choriocarcinoma at 3.80% and vulvar carcinoma at 2.53%, while no cases of vaginal or tubal cancers were reported. The mean age and parity for endometrial carcinoma were 61.50 years, and 5.13 respectively, being significantly higher than those for ovarian carcinoma 51.10 years and 3.87 respectively, while the mean age and parity for cervical carcinoma were 47.16 years and 3.25 respectively. Most patients with endometrial carcinoma presented with stage I of the disease were 28 patients out of 36 thus representing 77.78% of the total of endometrial cancer cases. Insofar as ovarian carcinoma cases that presented with an advanced disease there were 16 out of 30 (53.33%) cases which ranged between stages III and IV. As to cervical carcinoma most of the cases presented with early stage disease (7 out of 8 cases) (87.5%) were in stage I. Age and parity had no influence on the stage at presentation vis-a-vis endometrial and cervical but the effect on ovarian carcinoma was noticeable. Concerning endometrial carcinoma, age had no influence on stage at presentation, yet women of high parity (=5) presented at earlier stage disease than those of parity less than 5.
Keywords: Gynaecological malignancies, endometrial cancer, incidence.

Prolog Programming in the Process of Problem Solving

Monire Norouzi

This article discussed the main features and basic structure of Prolog. According to processing problems which appeared in practical application, this article analyzed three control structures of Prolog to solve them more efficiently by predicate and an interior operating mechanism in structured programming language. The efficiency of program execution has been greatly improved.
Keywords: Prolog, predicate, structured programming, control Structure.

Repair Downtime in Wireless Sensor Networks

Neda Beikmahdavi and Abolfazl Akbari

Wireless sensor networks are characterised by dense deployment of energy constrained nodes. in the past few years wireless sensor networks have received a greater interest in application such as disaster management, border protection, combat field reconnaissance and security surveillance. Sensor nodes are expected to operate autonomously in unattended environments and potentially in large numbers. Failures are inevitable in wireless sensor networks due to inhospitable environment and unattended deployment. The data communication and various network operations cause energy depletion in sensor nodes and therefore, it is common for sensor nodes to exhaust its energy completely and stop operating. This may cause connectivity and data loss. Therefore, it is necessary that network failures are detected in advance and appropriate measures are taken to sustain network operation. In this paper we proposed a new mechanism to sustain network operation in the event of failure cause of energy-drained nodes. The proposed technique relies on the cluster members to recover the connectivity. The proposed recovery algorithm has been compared with some existing related work and proven to be more energy efficient [20].
Keywords: Sensor Networks, clustering, fault detection, fault recovery.

The Emerging Technology of Nano and Education with a View to Architecture for Children
Nima Rahpouri Mofrad, Feridoun Nahidi Azar, Shahryar Shaghaghi G, Ashrafossadat Modarresi and Bahram Karami

The tragedy of the end of traditional architecture era and the departure of spirit of authenticity from the essence of world cities, provided a bed for good or destructive events in those times. The spirit of authenticity which was like an umbrella and everything was under its shadow, has undergone some changes over the years and all these changes have been compatible and consistent with people lives and livelihood. Although the effect was simple and understandable, it had extended use and was less damaging. These kinds of constructive movements have been effective in the process of architectural evolution, like climbing a ladder steps toward progress and improvement. There was no difference between these two and all people could connect to it. This article has been briefly reviewed the issue of the emergence of technology in architecture and its impact on the construction process and the genesis of interdependent styles. I will introduce some factors that provided the ground for great improvements in the realm of architecture and will express the importance of education in architecture, the use of nanotechnology in architecture, coexistence with nature and organic architecture which can be converted to a special architecture with the support of technology. If we want to achieve this matter, we will have a long way ahead and the most scientific way is to start from the basic level, i.e. to familiarize children who are the future investments with this kind of life; because when a particular architecture is introduced, the thoughts should also become distinctive as well as the people's perspectives. Even the type of life of every human being should be particular during the period of growth and development and the person should seek to achieve its restoration and evolution during his life time, and in line with these discussions, he should actualize his potential thoughts. In this article, I have done my best efforts through research on Persian and Latin texts and discussions with experts of architecture to provide an answer, though short and concise, on the topic.
Keywords: Nanotechnology, Education, Organic architecture, Children and architecture.

Design and Development of Integrated Marketing Communications Model

Mohammad Hossein Owji and Negin Pirahmadi

The previous researches indicated that the components of integrated marketing communications (IMC) model have randomly; dynamic, ambiguous, non-exactly, quantitative and intangible nature and some approaches are essential to integrate and consistent with these factors' nature. This article refers to the results of studied projects of "integrated marketing communications model". In this research tried to study and evaluate current marketing communications of firms to find the reality of promotional integrated factors and how to use them include advertisement, direct selling (face to face), promotion factors for sale (motivators) and the factors are related to public relations (fames), direct marketing and public relations. The main purpose of this article is to present a model for combining effective and efficient promotion mix in order to provide accuracy of information, persuading and effectiveness. Using known models of IMC and their pathology and applying them in scientific environment, the research designed a model is applicable now in one of the famous firms in Iran. This plan is providing as software and is based on two main integration factors and it is possible to achieve the information by a effective marketing information system along with providing proper promotion mix to create special and strong brand for firm. So, for access efficiency competitive advantage in dynamic environment, firms need to develop integration instead of module structure. IMC model presented as a new approach in marketing science especially in advertising.
Keywords: Promotion mix, integrated marketing communications (IMC), effectiveness.

Entity Valuating Despite the Accounting Noises
Rezvan Hejazi, Mahsa farjadpour and Zahra Honarmandi

One of the accounting items which is developed and provided in financial statements (gain & loss) ,is net profit. Computation of net profit of a financial department is affected by accounting methods and evaluations. Therefore possibility of accounting noise resulted from intentional or unintentional biases is possible. presence of noise at accounting information, disrupts the results of firm valuations by users, then they are always looking for ways to determine these noise. Also literature research shows that different kinds of accounting noise result in decreased quality in accounting profit. Research related to profit data and shares prices, indicated that investors allocate different valuation weights to different components of profit (Amir et al). Investors in fact can simply by analyzing the profit to reported components, determine some of the accounting noise (e.g. un continued activities, and different kinds of profit and un operating loss), but most of the accounting noise are hidden and thereby couldn’t be recognized. Despite the large amount of research literatures in terms of accounting data role for valuation of firm, there has been silence about ways that investors revealed different type of accounting hidden noise and observed it on the valuation process. The aim of this study is to investigate ways that investors use accounting data for valuation of firm in spite of accounting noise. The model used in this study is based on the extended theory by (Amir et al 2008). Their results showed that isolating profit by analyzing financial ratios can help investors to determine profit management in share pricing. Two hypothesis along with it, and the difference of reported profit from ordinary profit as a independent variable and the price and output as a dependent variables are proposed. In order to analyze the data, SPSS software is used.
Keywords: Stock yield – stock price – ordinary profit – noise theory – value of firm – net profit – component of profit.