American Journal of Scientific Research

Issue 92
Sep, 2013

Studying the Intellectual Property Rights in Various Areas
5-9
Alireza Hassani and Yahya Khosravi Borang

Abstract:
This article tries to describe the intellectual property rights. First, the definition of intellectual property and related areas are referred. Two treaties were concluded in 1996 at the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) in Geneva. One, the WIPO Copyright Treaty (WCT), deals with protection for authors of literary and artistic works, such as writings and computer programs; original databases; musical works; audiovisual works; works of fine art and photographs. The other, the WIPO Performances and Phonograms Treaty (WPPT), protects certain “related rights” (that is, rights related to copyright): in the WPPT, these are rights of performers and producers of phonograms.
Keywords: Intellectual, intellectual property rights, property rights.


Exploring the Relationship between Fluid Intelligence and Language Proficiency: Correlational Approach
10-20
Ebrahim Khodadady, Nader Bagheri and Atefeh Tafaghodi

Abstract:
This study explored whether fluid intelligence (Gf) is significantly related to English language proficiency (ELP). To this end, the Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM) designed by Raven, Court and Raven (1977) and the disclosed 47-item Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) tailored by Khodadady (2012) were employed as the main instruments. When one hundred thirty two undergraduate and graduate university students majoring in English took the SPM and TOEFL as measures of Gf and ELP, respectively, not only the TOEFL but also its structure subtest correlated significantly with the SPM. To explore the relationship further, the test takers were divided into high, middle and low ELP groups on the basis of their z-scores on the TOEFL. When the groups’ scores on the TOEFL as well as its structure and reading subtests were correlated with their scores on the SPM, only the structure subtest of the middle-proficiency test takers showed significant relationship with the SPM. The results are discussed within an English language testing context and suggestions are made for future research.
Keywords: Intelligence, proficiency, testing, multiple choice items


Discrete Bamboo Fibre as Reinforcement in Concrete

21-27
Festus Adeyemi Olutoge, Oriyomi Modupe Okeyinka and Olasunkanmi Daniel Ilori

Abstract:
This study investigated the suitability and viability of discrete Bamboo fibres as reinforcement in concrete matrix. The objective was to determine the effect of this natural fiber on the strength properties of concrete The bamboo calm was cut, air dried and reduced to fiber sizes of 35mm lengths and 2mm diameter in replication of commercial fibers. Sixty concrete cubes (150 x150 x 150mm) and fifteen cylinders (100 x200mm) were cast and cured for 28days. The fiber content in concrete were varied from 0% (control) to 0.5%, 0.75%, 1.0% and 1.25%. Compressive strength and split tensile test were carried out on the cured specimens. After 28days of curing, a maximum compressive strength value of 14.57Mpa was for the 1% fibre concrete while the value for the 0% concrete was 11.11Mpa.. The results have shown that discrete bamboo fibres can be used to improve the strength properties of control. The optimum performance was obtained at a bamboo fibre content of 1.0%.
Keywords: Bamboo fibres, Concrete, Compressive strength, Bamboo calm.


Comparative Study of the Wet Tropical Domain of Africa Lagoons: Those of the Porto-Novo Lagoon (Benin) and the Adjin and Potou Lagoons (Côte D’ivoire)

27-37
N’guessan Yao Alexis, Diangone Eric, N’guessan Yao Mathieu, Amani Etché Mireille, Wognin Valerie, Wango Ted Edgard and Aka Kouamé

Abstract:
Sedimentologicals analysis and the bathymetric sunrises made in the Adjin and Potou lagoons of Côte d’Ivoire and the Porto-Novo lagoon of Benin, allowed to characterize sandy sediments and morphology of the bottom of these lagoons and to compare them. On the bottom of lagoons, sediments are mainly constituted by mud located in lagoons funds while on their borders, we meet essentially sands. Pebbles and gravels are located by place, around of the Adjin lagoon, and near the outlets of Djibi and Bété rivers. Unlike Adjin and Potou lagoons, we note the presence of facies of “red” sand, in the outlet of the Totché channel in the Porto-Novo lagoons. Stoneware are along the Northeast bank of the Porto-Novo lagoon. We find blocks of stoneware, in ferruginous cement and in purplish break. This study allowed to realize the bathymetric maps and of distribution of sediments, as well as the determination of the environment of deposits of sands.
Keywords: Morphology, Sedimentology, Adjin and Potou lagoons, Porto-Novo lagoon, Côte d’Ivoire, Benin.


Morphology of Intact Rituals of Water-Sprinkling of Human on Nature and Human on Human in Iran

38-44
Mohammad Aref and Vahid Golestan

Abstract:
The article aims at analytical study and determination of origins of water-sprinkling dramatic rituals in Komijan in Central Province of Iran. The region had been a historical highway for entering, setting and exiting many different communities and immigrants from 4th century B.C., religion and water being considered as one of the most efficient element in their life. Though the real origins and reasons of dramatic rituals of water-sprinkling of human on nature and human on human are not yet discovered, the findings show that the natives dated back before the entrance of Aryans to Iranian plateau were religion-centered, scintillating and ritual makers. The people of Komijan in the time of drought and shortage of subsurface water perform more than ten religious, symbolic rituals of water-sprinkling. The data have been gathered by library research, participant observation, shooting films, and interviewing with 119 eldest people of 67 villages of Komijan.
Keywords: Komijan, Iran, dramatic rituals, ethnography, folk theatre, water-sprinkling, drought, religion, folklore.


Improving the Empathy Ability of University Students by Participating in Recreational Activities as Group

45-50
Korkmaz Yigiter

Abstract:
The purpose of this study is to improve empathy ability of the university students by participating in recreational activities as group. 60 volunteer university students participated in the study and were randomly assigned to experimental (Mage=19±1,20) and control (Mage=19,26±1,61) groups. The experimental group participated in the recreational activities which was conducted in three sessions, each lasting one hour a week. During this period, the control group did not participate in any regular or systematic recreational activity program as group. Empathy Ability Scale (EAS) was administered to participants before and after 10-week period. According to results of the present study, The findings indicated that there was a significant statistically different between pre test and post test on empathy scores of participants in the experimental group (0.001, p<0.05). Hovewer, there was not a significant statistically different between pre test and post test on empathy scores of participants in the control group (,0.36, p<0.05). In conclusion, participants in the experimental group improved in scores of empathy ability than those in the control group
Keywords: Recreational activity, Communication, Empathy ability.


Reviewing and Explaining the Approaches and Principles of Educational Management in Rab e` Rashidi
51-58
Masoome Moghimi-Firozabad

Abstract:
The educational and cultural Complex ‘Rab e` Rashidi’ is the most striking example of efforts of a well-educated man as Khoja Rashid-Al-Din Fazlallah in excellence, growth and dynamism of Iranian culture. Undoubtedly, some of the growth and prosperity of Islamic civilization and scientific advances was the result of proper management and planning of education, learning and research conducting in Rab e` Rashidi. Hence, the present study aims to determine some of the educational principles and mechanisms which stimulate growth and success of Rab e` Rashidi Complex by addressing its educational management. Thus the current study evaluates educational-administrative mechanisms of elementary school, vocational education, higher education, hospital, library and Dar-ol Quran. Besides, organization and organizational structure of educational institutions in Rab e` Rashidi has been well studied and analyzed.
Keywords: Rab e` Rashidi, Khwaja Rashid-Al-Din, education, management


Exploring the Impacts of Electronic City on Utilizing the Urban Land uses by using AHP-TOPSIS Technique

59-69
Somayeh Ahani, Fatemeh Zarei Kargabad and Kayvan Zarei

Abstract:
Information and communication technology (ICT) impacts on cities by different teleworking services, e-buying, e-communication, e-hobbies, e-banking, electronic services and e-leaning. By attending to this fact that the different services in city are supplied by utilizing the land; so, the electronic city has an important impact on land utilizing in cities and supplies the number of needs in cyberspaces. This research's goal is to identify the potential of each region in different fields of electronic city, and its primary pre-hypothesis is that the electronic city causes to access the facilities and different functions justly. The experts' perspectives and their analyses by AHP show that the impact of the teleworking and electronic services is higher than the other electronic city's elements in Tabriz. Exploring the people's ideas about using the electronic city by using the TOPSIS and AHP coefficients show that 1st region has been affected most and the 9th region has been affected less from electronic city. And totally, the potential difference of the selected regions has not been more than the electronic city and is between 35 to 50 percent, which shows that the electronic city is going to the social justice in cities.
Keyterms: Electronic city, urban land utilizing, Tabriz, AHP-TOPSIS technique


Study of the Magnetic Behaviors in Organic Free Radicals

70-81
Zarei S, Abedini Y and Bodagh Jamali J

Abstract:
In this paper we have studied of different and important magnetic characteristics for organic free radicals by magnetic susceptibilities measurement at very low temperatures (Liquid Helium Point). For this work, we have chosen some samples of the stable radicals from Verdazyl group, i.e., TTV, OV, P=CD,TOV, DOV. Our results on thermal functionality of magnetic susceptibilities shows that there are various magnetic behaviors, such as, Ferro magnetic, Anti Ferro magnetic, weak Ferro magnetic, spin- peierls. Therefore we have studied affects of magnetic and anti magnetic dilutions on those behaviors. In addition, our results show that one can control of molecular magnetic behavior in different sides of crystal lattice to use in engineering of metallurgy and new compound without any metal elements.
Keywords: Organic Free Radicals, Magnetic Susceptibilities, Spin – Peierls Transition, exchange Interaction, Curie - Weiss Law.


Extent of Commitment among Students with Learning Disabilities' Female Teachers with the Content Individual Educational Program (IEP) in Light of Some Variables in Al- Karak Province in Jordan
82-94
Mohammad Abdessalam Al-Bawaliz

Abstract:
The current study aimed to identify the extent of commitment among female teachers of learning disable students with the content of content Individual Educational Program (IEP) in light of some variables (educational qualification and experience) in Al-Karak province south Jordan. A tool that contains the content of the content of the (IEP) was constructed with the focus on the individual educational plan and the individual learning plan, the tool was administered on a group of (120) female teachers who teach learning disable students in both private centers and public schools. The results of the study indicated that their use for the content of (IEP) was medium, and that there were significant statistical differences in learning disable students female teachers commitment to the content of the individual program according to the variable of the educational qualification type and in favor of the educational qualification in education field. The results also indicated significant statistical differences in the female teachers' commitment to the content of the (IEP) according to the variable of the educational qualification and in favor of Diploma and Bachelor degree in special education and above. The results indicated no significant statistical differences regarding the variable of experience. The study concluded with a group of recommendations, the most important among them was conducting workshops and training programs regarding the content of the individual educational program (IEP) for those with disability.


Nostalgia in Hazin Lahiji’s Poetical Works

95-99
Maryam Yosefi, KobraNodehi and TaghiAminiMofrad

Abstract:
Sheikh Mohammad Ali Hazin Lahiji is an indefatigable scholar, poet and fighter of century 12 A.H. who was born in Esfahan. While he was distinguished and tasteful poet, he was jurisprudent, narrator, clergyman and a capable interpreter. Hazin is one of the poets with Indian style who has experienced immigration and nostalgia for this reason; severe depression and nostalgic pain are evident in major part of his verses. In other words, nostalgia in his works is highly frequent. In the present paper, the most important fundamentals and components of nostalgia appearance have been criticized in Hazin Lahiji’s works.
Keywords: Hazin, nostalgia, pain.


The Role of Spiritual Quotient in Organizational Citizenship Behavior (Northwest Tehran Parsian Bank Branches)

100-111
Soroush Esmaeil Nejad, Alireza Shirvani and Ali Safari

Abstract:
The present study aims at explaining dimensions of Spiritual Quotient and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB), and also investigating the role of Spiritual Quotient in organizational citizenship behavior. Regarding the methodology, this study is of descriptive casual type. To test the research hypotheses, coefficient correlation and structural equations modeling tests were used. 300 personnel of northwest branches of Parsian Bank in Tehran comprised the statistical population of the study from which 169 were selected as the statistical sample using Cochran formula and simple random sampling. Correlation coefficients and the results of structural equations modeling with the confidence level of 95% show that the variable of Spiritual Quotient predicts about 62.41% variations in OCB. Thus, it can be concluded that promoting Spiritual Quotient in the study’s population improves OCB.
Keywords: Spiritual Quotient, Organizational Citizenship Behavior, Structural Equations Modeling, Parsian Bank.


Kaveh’s Uprising and Fereidoun’s Sovereignty in Historical Texts and on the Façade of Afshins’ Palace
112-119
Mahin Ahbabi

Abstract:
Kaveh’s revolt was a public movement against foreigners’ oppression. Kaveh, who belonged to artisan class, protested to his children’s being murdered by Zahak and called on people to fight against the cruelty of Zahak. In the façade of Afshins’ palace, Kaveh and Fereidoun were united since the beginning of the revolt and were fighting against Zahak and his puppet rulers and gained victory; a point which is not referred to in historical texts. After the victory, Fereidun became the king with the agreement of Kaveh and people. Kaveh didn’t become the king because he didn’t have three characteristics that Iranian kings had: “He wasn’t from royal family ( descendents of Jamshid), he didn’t own king glory, and he didn’t have spiritual status.” As a result, he couldn’t be a king because in a hierarchical system no one was permitted to leave a class and move to a higher class. After his sovereignty, Fereidoun appointed Kaveh and his children as commanders-in-chief. Therefore, he promoted to army class. Fereidoun ordered to decorate the flag, which was made by Kaveh out of his leather apron to raise up in his revolt against Zahak, with jewels and it was carried in front of the army in different wars. In fact, this uprising shows the cooperation between different classes of people and the king in their battles with foreign aggression against the territory of Iran and Aryan religion
Keywords: Derafsh Kaviani (the standard of the Kings), Fereidoun, Zahak, Dave, Mehregan, wooden façade of Afshins’ Palace, Farr.


The Effect of Self-Efficacy on Reading Achievement

120-124
Shahla Yaghoobi, Anahita Yarahmadi and Mahbobeh Pirmanesh

Abstract:
Affective filters are considered as those factors that can directly effects on failure or success of learners. Anxiety and self efficacy are among those important factors which should be paid attention by teachers. This study was investigated to find relation between self efficacy and reading comprehension and anxiety. Then it found the relation between learners' self efficacy and reading achievement. The present study also found whether it was relation between learners' self efficacy and higher anxiety. Forty three students majoring EFL were participated in the present study and two questionnaires were adapted to collect data. The results showed that high self efficacious learners achieved higher scores in reading courses. Finding ways to reduce reading anxiety by improving self-efficacy was appreciated.
Keywords: Reading achievement, Reading anxiety, Reading comprehension, Self-efficacy.


Proposing a Model for Collective Stupidity: Identification and Assessment of the Effective Factors (Aviation Service Company)
125-137
Mahsa Doaee, Alireza Shirvani and Ali Safari

Abstract:
Purpose – The purpose of this study is to identify and assess the factors which decrease organizational intelligence leading the staff towards collective stupidity. Methodology -The research method is descriptive-correlative. The inspected statistical society consists of high ranking staff of an Aviation Service Company. A researcher customized questionnaire with (0.97) reliability is used in order to collect the related data. Hypotheses of this research are tested through Measurement Model. Findings – After analyzing the seven hypothetical components, two of them are omitted. There is a significant correlation between the five effective factors regarding collective stupidity. Practical implications – This article argues that, in today's competitive environment, organizations need to identify the factors which convert an intelligent organization into one with collective stupidity. Originality – The proposed model is the first in its kind with seven multi-indexed factors.
Keywords: Collective stupidity, Organizational Stupidity, Organizational intelligence, Strategic stupidity, Cultural stupidity