American Journal of Scientific Research

Issue 93
Nov, 2013

Education and Science for Women in Tajikistan: Achievements and Challenges
5-9
Sadikova N and Zeinab Sagvand

Abstract:
Tajik society is considered a traditional society, where the state and religion play a major role in social and political life of the society. In the today’s Tajik society Islam has a big influence on women and their lives. Despite all rights and freedoms, granted by the 20 century to women, it is too early to talk about gender equality, and women continue to be an object of social and political research. Last year we celebrated the 20th Anniversary of the National Independence: it was very important for both men and women of our country. Any anniversary is first of all summarizing and assessment of the achieved results. I thought a lot on topic of my presentation and decided to talk about the situation with education (secondary and higher), and personnel training for Academic in my country. The main focus will be opportunities for girls and women in higher education, and challenges women-researchers have in their research and scientific career.
Keywords: Higher education, women, researchers, education, Tajikistan.

Education of Sustainable Development Concepts on Architectural Designing Approach
10-14
Elahe Sadat Ashrafi

Abstract:
According to the United Nations (1991) Sustainable development refers to a model of human development in which resource use aims to meet human needs while ensuring the sustainability of natural systems and the environment, so that these needs can be met not only in the present, but also for generations to come. Today, one of the challenges of the environment is sustainability and as a mechanism is survival of Earth and the human. The reasons for the proper use of energy and avoid its waste such as: Limitation of land resources, Threat for survival of plant and animal species, Waste production and toxic gases, and yet the, right use of resources for future generations. This paper presents a model of the ecological for Education on Sustainable Development. The general hypothesis is that Architecture and climate have extensive functionality Relation between them and sustainability concept. In this regard, Experience of sustainable design offers How to use the resources and minimize the use of renewable resources in the Environment and training courses that the designer must make sense to plan. In the presentation of the model, as a place where in addition to the introduction of past experience, also it educates the concepts of sustainability and how to use them. In this paper is presented the principles of sustainable design Such as: Conservation Resources, Life Cycle, Human-oriented design, Climate-Oriented Design, Appropriate Designs With the environment, Design based on the existing energy in the environment and Organic Architecture and Ecology. The result of this study is that the architecture and museums can notice concepts of sustainability into the people as intuitive and tactile due to the existence in the environment.
Keywords: Education of sustainable development, Principles of Design, Renewable Energy, Source of energy.


Techniques of Supporting Terrorist Crimes Victims

15-22
Shima Sharifabadi Torabi

Abstract:
Crime is one of the important elements of each criminal phenomenon which has not found its real position in laws of most countries. As a result, victim of crime who almost plays effective role in committing crime has been neglected. After emergence of victimology in recent decades, long steps have been taken to study the victims of crime and recognize their specifications and positions in criminal justice and a new approach entitled support of victims of crime have been applied for victimology by through effect of ethical ideas on it. This case has been raised considering victims of terroristic crimes. Help, protection and compensation for damage for victims of terroristic crime in documents of United Nations Organization and European Council as a political strategy for confronting with the victims of crime who consider it inhumane not only affect victims of crime and continuation of their living affairs but also are regarded as an important part of global strategy for fighting against terrorism. The present research which was conducted with descriptive –analytical method based on library data studied criminal, medical, emotional, financial and social supports of the victims of crime and finally some suggestions were given for improving supports in international laws.
Keywords: Support, Crime. Terroristic Events, Techniques, Victimology.


Urban Spaces Vitality Based on Art Street Concept (The Proposed Streets, Tarbiat and Valieasr, Tabriz)

23-36
Farid Zarei H, Sohaila Hamidzadeh K, Mina Kalantary Ch and Bahram Karami

Abstract:
Place is the main element of its residents. Human can reach his/her identity by place identity. One of the reasons of today’s human wandering is not pay attention to place concept and as a result is the lack of place identity. This paper has been obtained from a research done in order to identify the effective factors on vitality of urban space and creating a vital urban space. In this research we have tried to find an effective relation among art activity, life quality and vitality according to the significance of art activity and also the role of street art in the life quality of citizens (in contrast to automobile and the motion of car which intrudes safety and security) in the form of concept called art street. Therefore, the review of related concepts and ideas by studying the case studies (Tarbiat and Valieasr streets) which are powerful in terms of business but weak in terms of urban art and also they do not have urban vitality; we have tried to prove the assumptions of research. As a result, through sincerity dominated over its space, and also due to the effect of street arts such as street show and visual arts fair in open space across citizens, it leads to vitality in urban space and finally some proposals have been presented in respect of promoting the street vitality.
Keywords: Urban Space, Place, Vitality, Street theater, Collective memory, Art Street, Tarbiat Street, Valieasr Street.


The Role of Symbols in Bakhtiari Nomadic Hand-Woven Textiles

37-45
Mahdieh Salimi-Beni and Mohammad Afrough

Abstract:
Nomadic life (in Iran) depends mainly on raising livestock. Basically immigrant people have cleverly learnt how to manage their life through making the most of the only possible financial activity in nature: raising livestock. In brief, three key interdependent elements constitute the life of Bakhtiari people: human, livestock and nature. Bakhtiari customs and beliefs have been inspired from livestock and the surrounding nature. The representation of such customs and beliefs may be clearly visible in the nomadic hand-woven textiles. The present study tries to answer this basic question: How have the customs and beliefs of Bakhtiari people been represented in their hand-woven textiles? Then it examines such customs and beliefs based on two basic elements: livestock and nature. The hypothesis is that all patterns and motifs used in the hand-woven textiles reflect in one way or another nomadic familiarity with livestock and surrounding nature. The main topics which have been developed in this study include: the geographical location of Bakhtiari land, a brief history of Bakhtiari people, the economy of Bakhtiari people, examination of different kinds of Bakhtiari hand-woven textiles, patterns and motifs used in the nomadic textiles(/plant, animal and human ones) and the rationale of using such symbols and motifs. This investigation is an applied study based on a descriptive-analytic approach. Also, data have been collected through field study (observations and interviews) as well as library sources.
Keywords: Bakhtiari, symbol, customs and beliefs, hand-woven textiles, motifs.


Does Asset Price Bubble Influence Investors’ Behavior? A Case Study of Real Estate Market in Pakistan

46-68
Hira Aftab and M. Umair Raza

Abstract:
Primary aim of this research was to shed light on the hitherto neglected issue of speculative bubble in real estate market.This study examines the influence of speculative bubble phenomenon on investors’ behavior. Moreover it also clarifies the concept of speculative bubble and factors lie behind the speculative bubble.The results obtained imply that the behavior of investors during the speculative bubble was to some extent irrational and that decisions had changed as a consequence of the speculative bubble. The results also indicate that cognitive illusion as an important contributing factor to the overvaluation as well as the decline of the market.
Keywords: Finance, Real estate bubble, Investors’ behavior, Speculative asset price bubble, Cognitive Illusion, Herd Behavior, Heuristic theory, Prospect theory.

Earnings Manipulation through Reduction in Discretionary Expenses and Future Financial Performance: Evidence from Pakistan
69-78
Naila Tabassum, Ahmad Kaleem, Sadaf Ehsan and Umair Saeed Bhutta

Abstract:
The study finds the relationship between abnormal lower discretionary expenses and future financial performance. Four measures of financial performance measures; Return on Asset (ROA), Return on Equity (ROE) and Earning per Share (EPS) and Price to Earnings ratio (PE) are taken. Manufacturing firms listed on Karachi Stock Exchange (KSE) are selected for analysis and data is collected from year 2004 to 2011. Financial data is collected from the annual reports of the firms and data of market value is collected from business recorder site. Panel data analysis technique, Generalised least square methods is used for analysis. It has been revealed that there is negative impact on firm’s subsequent performance which reduced discretionary expenses to report higher earnings but this impact is not significant.
Keywords: Real Earnings Management (REM); Discretionary Expenses; Financial Performance; Pakistan; Manufacturing Sector, KSE



Water Discharge Modeling as the Impact of Flood in River Estuary Tondano

79-89
Marthen Kumajas

Abstract:
The river is a multi-function natural resources that are vital to human life. The main functions of the river is a source of drinking water, power generation, irrigation fields/farms and aquaculture, transport, supply of building materials, tourism and so on. One of the natural resources that are non-renewable, in fact has a discharge and water quality are increasingly alarming. Flood is a common natural phenomenon due to overflowing rivers, reservoirs, lakes, oceans or other water bodies and flooded lowlands or basins are usually not submerged in water. To reduce the losses caused by the disaster management needs to be prepared quickly, accurately and integrated. One stage management/flood control include assessment flood never happened (recognizing the magnitude of the flood discharge) so that the research aims to gain modeling (pattern) water discharge as a result of flooding in Tondano River Estuary, North Sulawesi. The research was conducted in the area of watershed (DAS) Tondano located within the River Basin Development (PWS-9) in North Sulawesi. The research data were measured at five locations, namely the Regional Tondano Tondano, Karame 1, Karame 2, Sindulang, and Kampung Arab. Each location was measured using cross-sectional area measurements and velocity of water flow. From the results of the study showed that the Sindulang Location is the location where the highest water discharge rates averaged 1.68 m3/s, followed by Kampung Arab with an average rate of water discharge is 0.83 m3/s, while Karame 1 has the lowest discharge rate is 0.19 m3/s. From the test results showed that the higher the level of flooding, the higher the water level in the river Tondano. The test results show that the p-value of 0.015 > 0.05 (5% error rate) indicates that there are significant levels of flooding on water discharge in the river Tondano. From the results of the model predictions showed that the average flood level will result in discharge water 1 0.239 (1) + 0263 = 0502 m3/s. If flooding increases, it will increase the intake capacity of 0.239 m3/s. At the highest flood level, will produce water discharge 0.980 m3/s.
Keywords: Discharge Water, Flood Levels


Analysis of Hidrofisis Suspended Load Function Changes at Estuary Rainy Season River in Full Moon

90-96
Maxi Tendean

Abstract:
Sediment transport estuaries constitutes is the process of deposition, erosion and transport of sediment estuaries base surface of the earth. Assessment of physical deposition and suspended load transport estuaries can be based on the distribution of positions and seasons as well as the physical variable flow rate. Function which determines the flow rate of spread and deposition of suspended load transport becomes important later, because the mouth of the river is an area of riverbed erosion (erosion of the riverbed) and areas along the estuary sediment deposition material. The analysis of changes in the function of the suspended load flow model of the rainy season along the boundary of the full moon will be in the form of rating curve presented speed function ebb and flow of tide conditions. Rating curve at low tide is at a higher level compared to the tide conditions, while at low tide the flow velocity greater than the speed at high tide. Flow velocity at depths of 0.6 to be physically very concerned with the spread of suspended load, because suspended sediment load based transport mechanism moves the floating load. Modeling results for the suspended load ebb and tide conditions also show changes in the function of the suspended load decreased polynomial. Rating curve analysis at low tide and the tide shows that the suspended load at high tide has a smaller price decline, but the gradient is greater than the suspended load at low tide. Decrease in flow speed along the measurement position is always accompanied by a decrease in the concentration of suspended load based on the distance function. In theory the spread of suspended load is very dependent on the speed, the season and the maximum tide (full moon), meaning that tidal water conditions and seasons greatly affect the transport of suspended sediment load along the estuary.
Keywords: Erosion, Tide, Receding, Sediment, and Hidrofis.

Parenting Styles and their Relationships with Pre-School Children’s First Language Proficiency
97-107
Ebrahim Khodadady and Bahareh Hadizadeh

Abstract:
This study aims to explore the relationship between parenting styles and first language learning of pre-school children. To this end, the indigenized Persian version of Parent Authority Questionnaire (PAQ) validated by Esfandiyari (1995) was administered to two hundred eighteen parents who had registered their children in three kindergarten and pre-school centers in Mashhad, Iran. An oral schema-based test (S-Test) developed on a drawing presented in the textbook taught at the centers was administered to the children whose parents were divided into three groups on the basis of their performance on the PAQ. After securing the reliability and internal validity of S-Test, the performance of authoritative, permissive and authoritarian parents’ children on the S-Test was statistically analyzed by employing the One-Way ANOVA and Scheffe post hoc tests. The results showed that the mean score for Authoritarian group was significantly different from the Authoritative group. Permissive group did not, however, differ significantly from either Authoritarian or Authoritative group. The results are discussed and suggestions are made for future research.
Keywords: Parenting styles, language proficiency, schema-based tests, pre-school children.


Identify the Main Components of Cultural Empowerment of Human Resources in Iran

108-116
Mina EsfahanI and Seyyed Reza Salehi Amiri

Abstract:
The importance of human resources is far from new technology, material and financial resources further. The main difference between ignorance and intelligence agencies should be considered. The role of human resource efficient, capable and knowledgeable in achieving organizational objectives ¬ thing that is undeniable. Life and survival of any organization depends on the abilities, skills, knowledge, expertise and knowledge of human resources. More and more people are prepared; it can be involved in improving organizational performance. Employees in having The Power of Thought, creativity, and innovation are the greatest asset organization because any improvement of human resources is done by the organization. According to the study, the main objective of this paper is to "identify the major components of cultural empowerment of human resources in the organization" is.The purpose of the study and the opportunity to do practical research and analytical methods of data collection, survey. The study population in this study consisted of all directors, vice presidents, senior managers; middle and base of all employees and Cultural Organization of Tehran Municipality are at least 329 people have been chosen according to Morgan. The results show that the loadings on each factor and human resource empowerment literature and content ¬ questionnaire items, arts and culture are an important component of employee empowerment: First factor: management support, the second factor: the nature of the job, the third demographic factor IV executable strategy, the fifth factors: organizational culture and the sixth factor: organizational structure. The results of the t-test shows Status of Human Resource Empowerment and Cultural Organization of Tehran Municipality of the sample are moderate.
Keywords: Empowerment, Resources, Human Resources, Organization of Tehran Municipality.


The Effect of Educational Multimedia Software Based on the Constructivism Approach on Achievement Retention in Science

117-127
Yosefi Reza, Mazlomi Eynollah and Setareh Fatemeh

Abstract:
The present study is in order to survey impact of Multimedia Education with the approach social constructivism in science teaching fifth grade. For this purpose, population which includes all students in fifth grade boys and girls city in Babol were selected with method Cohen sampling. Sample studied were the two test group girls and boys and four groups including control boys and girls. The sample size for each group has been 26 people. Lesson sciences as hidden struggle in test group using Multimedia was designed according to the social constructivism approach attended by and teaching teacher were instructed during the last three weeks.This lesson was taught in control group but with typical multimedia software (Non-constructor oriented) and traditional classroom and with methods of lecture. Every six groups of students responded to pre-test and post-test questions. Also to measure student Satisfaction was carried the course questionnaire survey. Research findings showed that software with social constructivism approach is cause increase academic achievement both groups compared with controlled groups. Also experimental group students have satisfied of teaching methods
Keywords: Social constructivism - Multimedia Educational -Science education.

Attribution Theory as a Curriculum Issue
128-133
Baratali Nazarkardeh, Ghasem Modarresi and AzadehQolaminia

Abstract:
Attention to affective factors can lead to more effective language learning. Teachers and educators should recognize that students bring not only their mind but also their heart together in the classroom. Indeed, to foster positive attitudes, the teachers can open up multiple opportunities for the students to demonstrate positive features like self-image and self-esteem, a feeling of 'I can' and to excel. A theoretical perspective that could provide interesting findings regarding curriculum issues is that of attribution theory. The crux of the matter is that attributions in schools and classrooms are most likely to be socially constructivist in nature. There are many potentially helpful implications for language teachers in relation to attributions for success and failure. In order to be of real value, the curriculum must pursue these issues in the context of its longstanding commitment to the affective education, realizing that the task will require our most sophisticated skills. This is not the soft side of the curriculum, but it is the crucial side. It can be regarded as a vaccine one that fights hatred, violence, and antisocial behaviors, while prompting closeness, and personal growth.
Keywords: Attribution theory, learners’ perceptions, visible curriculum.


Analysis of Issues in Open Source Software Development: Systematic Literature Review

134-144
Kareem Ullah, Kursheed Asghar, Muhammad Abdul Qadoos Bilal Khan, Mohsan Naqi and Shahid Tauqeer

Abstract:
Open source software development is valuable area of interest in the field of software engineering. The objective of this study is to identify the evidence base reported issues of open source software development. Identifies issues will be resolved by reported mitigation strategies. Reported issues without evidence are not included in this paper. Systematic literature review is conducted and search strings are designed to retrieve the results from electronic databases. Selected studies are filtered by applying study selection criteria which are designed in review protocol. The reported results shows the issues of open source software development and there mitigation strategies. By resolving these issues it can be possible that failure rate of OSS projects should be deceased. No formal process exist which is used to overcome the issues. Failure rate of OSSD can decrease its growth rate. Mitigate the issue is the need of time. Identified issues are categorized and mitigated by reported strategies.
Keywords: Open Source Software Development, Open Source Software Development, free source software development, Traditional software development and proprietary software development.

Factors Influencing Migration of the Elites While Globalization (Sample: Iranian Elite’s Migration)
145-152
Hadi Rezghi Shirsavar and Fakhreddin Ahmadi

Abstract:
Being focused on criticizing and reviewing theoretical analysis and studying various forms of Brains migration, we can say that the original riddle in brain migration is Third World countries deprivation is the reason to make their human sources move and advance their inability to maintain and use this native force, which they usually need themselves. This study is descriptive – survey in terms of the practical aims and implementation method. The study sample consists of all teachers, specialists and experts in management, higher education, social and cultural sciences a number of 79 experts and scholars have been selected through simple random mentioned from the areas. The data collecting tool in this study is a questionnaire made of 36 questions by the researchers. The results of the Friedman test show that, the research sample think that the main cause of the elite immigration are their economic and financial problems the second to the ninth reason included component of the employment challenges Technological challenges, research challenges, political challenges, management challenges, educational challenges, international challenges and cultural - social challenges.
Keywords: Immigration, elite, challenges, globalization, higher education