American Journal of Scientific Research

Issue 94
Dec, 2013

Examining the Impact of the Great Force of Motivation on Organizational Commitment
Hira Aftab and M. Abid Rasheed

Employee motivation and commitment is very essential for an organization’s success. Committed and motivated employees are considered as an important asset to an organization and keeping the employee commitment and motivation up is always rewarding to a business as committed and motivated employees are more productive and higher productivity usually results in higher profits. This research was conducted to explore the association between work motivation and organizational commitment in the banking sector of Pakistan. Survey research design was used to conduct the study. Two scales were used one is of Work Motivation Scale by K G Agarwal and second one is Organizational Commitment Scale by Allen and Meyers (1996) in order to measure the employee motivation & organizational commitment. Purposive sampling technique was used. Sample size consisted of 355 employees from different banks of Lahore. Mann-Whitney test, Kruskal-Wallis test, Pearson correlation and regression was used to analyze the data. The findings suggested that there is a strong positive relationship (r = 0.774**, p<0.005) between work motivation and organizational commitment.

Social Networks Management as a Modern Media and Policy Making Around It
Mahdi Heydari Katayonche and Reza Jalili Sebardan


We can consider the social networks as a modern media. A media that transfer the information with amazing speed. Although the social networks have several benefits in the field of informing, but we shall control and guide them through a precise study and suitable policy making in order to have a powerful media. In this article, we are studying the social networks and media policy making. We have also prioritized the applied aims of the media in order to make a suitable policy to control the social networks in the form of media by network analysis process in order to help the in charges consider the importance of the aims in the policy making for social networks management using an applied model.

Keywords: Social networks, social networks management, media, media policy making, network analysis process

Optimizing Inventory and Price in Supply Chain with Genetic Algorithm Method

Emad Roghanian, Abbas Sheykhan and Ehsan Sayyad Abendankashi

This paper deals with the operational issues of a two-echelon supply chain under linear demand function for each buyer. The operational parameters to the model are sales price and transportation quantity that determine the channel cost of the supply chain transportation. To find out the optimal price and the optimal transportation quantity, for each buyer from several suppliers, a mathematical model is formulated. For using the genetic algorithm, the formulated model is modified and then the best value of the parameters is derived. Finally, a numerical example is given to illustrate the model.
Keywords: Inventory Routing, Optimal Pricing, Genetic Algorithm, Supply Chain.

Psychological Burnout Levels Among Counselors Working in Public Schools at Al-Balqa’ Governorate

Nagham Mohammad Suliman Abu Albasal

This current study aimed to identify psychological levels among Counselors working in public schools at Al-Balqa’ Governorate and whether these levels will vary depending on the variable factors such as: age, gender, educational qualification, marital status and counseling experience. This study was applied on a sample consisted of (77) male and female counselors by using a scale of Maslash for psychological burnout consisting of (22) paragraphs. The study findings showed that psychological levels among Counselors was low in stress emotional dimension with an average in the lack of a sense of accomplishment dimension where it is high in sag feelings dimension while the study concluded that there were no statistical significant differences in the responses of participants average according to gender, age , educational qualification and marital status, at the same time , the study confirmed that there is a statistical significant differences in the responses average of the study sample members according to the counseling experience and variable indicative of years of experience as follows: (1-10 years) , (more than 20 years old) in favor of (more than 20). It also found out that there is statistical significant differences between the years of experience (11-20 years old) and (more than 20 years old) in favor of the longest experience, whereas it did not show any statistical significant differences between the years of experience (11-20 years old) and (1-10 years).
Keywords: Psychological Burnout and Counselors

The Concept of Well-Being from the View Point of Islam and the Role of Spouses in Constructing a Healthy Family

Maliheh Poursatar Mohadi and Leyli Jamali

Based on direct quotation from The Holy Quran and the sacred words or the ‘Hadith’ from the Prophet Mohammad (p.b.u.h) and Imams (the descendants of Imam Ali (A.S) he was the cousin to Prophet Mohammad, known as his successor and the first Imam by the Shiite Muslims), the present descriptive study investigates the concept of well-being from the view point of Islam and the role of spouses in building up a healthy family. In the Islamic holy texts, like The Holy Quran, and religious teachings of the holy Prophet and the Imams, well-being means immunity of body and spirit from all kinds of illnesses. Just as a healthy heart guaranties physical health and heart problems distort the functioning of all physical organs, a healthy and moral or ill and immoral life pattern can affect one’s mental and moral well-being. Here the role of couples as committed individuals is very crucial. As illustrated in this paper, through the references made to religious texts and teachings, when a man and a woman unite in marriage they both undertake responsibilities which guarantee the physical and moral well-being of new social unit they build. Actually, the main purpose of marriage, as reflected in Islam, is establishing a tranquil, unanimous, sincere and friendly environment for the couples who can provide a suitable field for raising and educating children and guaranteeing a long, healthy, and happy life for all its members. Within this system a man and wife can prevent each other from moral deviation. They can conceal each others’ defects by standing out for one another’s peace and comfort. Women can have active roles in social security, making the society a safer place by constructing a safe and healthy environment within the family. By ignoring such roles the society can divert towards moral imbalance and corruption. Likewise, men as breadwinners who are responsible to provide for the family members have the responsibility of making a healthy atmosphere which nurtures the moral thus physical heath of the family and consequently the society.
Keywords: Well-being, Islam, family, spiritual security, social security.

Évolution des Descripteurs Intrasaisonniers des Saisons Pluvieuses Au sud-Bénin Entre 1951 et 2010

Allé C. S. Ulrich Y., Afouda A. Abel, Agbossou K. Euloge and Guibert Hervé

This study analyzed the evolution of intraseasonal characteristics of rainy seasons in the south of Benin from 1951 to 2010. For this purpose, daily rainfall records (1951-2010) from 14 stations were used. This period was divided into three sub-periods of 20 years: 1951-1970, 1971-1990 and 1991-2010. Trends between the sub-periods show that the intermediate sub-period (1971-1990) is the driest. After 1990, we note an increase in rainfall, but this last sub-period (1991-2010) remains drier than the wettest sub-period (1951-1970). This study showed that the first and the second rainy season are not affected in the same way by the atmospheric forcing. After 1990, while the quality of the second rainy season again became comparable to that of 1951-1970, the first rainy season remained precarious, comparable to that of 1971-1990. In addition, after 1970, the first rainy season shortened mainly because of its delay, while the second rainy season has lengthened due to its early onset. These changes of season’s length and quality open the importants questions of the adaptation of agricultural strategies.
Keywords: Intraseasonal characteristics, Rainy seasons, Dry spells, Markov chains, Rainy days, Africa

The Attitudes of Master Students in Al Balqa Applied University Towards Statistics and their Relationship with Some Variables
Abdullah Eed Al-Habahbeh

This study aimed at investigating the attitudes of master students at Princess Alia university college- Al Balqa Applied University towards statistics and their relationship with variables of gender, age, and achievement in statistics. To achieve the objectives of this study, the scale of attitudes towards statistics developed by Sumadi was used after establishing its validity and reliability. The scale consists of 29 items distributed into five factors which are: performance, future need, enjoyment, instructor's impact and perceived importance. The sample of the study consisted of 38 students (29 males, 9 females) of master stage. The results of the study showed that the attitudes of master students towards statistics were generally positive but intermediate (3.35). Results also indicated that there were statistically significant differences in the attitudes of students towards statistics on the whole scale, and on factors of performance, enjoyment and perceived importance due to achievement in statistics, whereas gender and age didn’t create any significant differences. The study recommended of modification the present statistics plan by introducing new methods of statistical programs (SPSS).

Environmental and Personal Elements Shaping the Poetry of Emily Dickinson

Nayera El Miniawi

Emily Dickinson is said to be a "poet-child". With her natural inspiration of a poet she could feel deeply. She was in constant suffering from loneliness, separation and bereavement. Emily then turned to words in order to express not only personal subjective phenomena but these by turn turned into universal ones. She raised a cry of veto against an unsatisfactory life. The poet in her adapted a private inner life. Of expression which is that of childhood. In her search of the immortal she found it not (only) in a dream of life after death but rather she found it the essentials within us. These essentials are correlated with the eternally child-like in all human beings. Children are to her sons of Gods. They are more of angels though they do not have much knowledge. When Emily assumed the role of the eternal child she was trying to achieve a constant process of rebirth. Emily notes the daily routine of the life she is passing from. The image of children playing games during a school recess is the starting point and focus of the poem. This scene catches her sight then the sense of motion is quickened or rather one should say that the sense of time comes to an end as they pass the cycle of the day and the seasons of the year at a period of both ripeness and decline. The world "passed" echoes through the stanza. Emily conveys her feeling of being now outside time and change for she corrects herself to say that the sun passed them, as it of course does all who are in the grave. This poem starts wittily and shrewdly by the lines: Because I could not stop for Death He kindly stopped for me; () In that respect Emily typically American. For "the American Artist sees life with fresh questioning eyes as a child does in his optimistic nativity, searching for his real self." This interest in childhood is also a romantic trait since the Romantics in general regarded children with an awe and respect akin to the divine. This attitude also relates Emily to her Puritan up-bringing. In an age of flourishing civilization and decaying morals and spiritual beliefs, the puritans and Emily Dickinson were searching for a center of stability and solidity so they resorted to the inner self. "Emily never outgrew her childish impishness which is reflected in much of her poetry." () She wrote with a style so light, simple and lively that it jumped, hopped and danced like a ballerina. Sometimes her style expressed a tone of a mischievous child with its gay nonsense which concealed under statements of irony and rebellion, Artistically speaking Emily was that potent that her words expressed moods – and her sounds conveyed meanings. Her imagery was often endowed with an eerie excitement which could belong to no one but a child. Even physically Emily was described by Higginson, her preceptor, in this childlike frame: "A step like a pattering child's in entry and in glided a little plain women with two smooth bands of reddish hair . . . She came to me with two lilies, which she put in a sort of childlike way into my hand and said 'these are my introduction' in a soft frightened breathless childlike voice".() In Emily Dickinson the very human childhood was an her tongue and the seraphic angelic childhood in their heart.

Feminism and Religion in the Fiction of Alifa Rifaat- “A Distant View of a Minaret” and “Bahiyya’s Eyes”

Mohammad Al-Aswad and Nayera El Miniawi

Fatimah Rifaat is one of the most controversial few female writers Who were interested in literature, not any kind of literature rather talking about what can be so called the forbidden issue which were not allowed for a woman to write about at that time she lived, she passed away leaving more than 100 works that tackled many social issue, these issue were at that time- and may be up to our time- very controversial and no one dared to talk about. Fatima who wrote under the name of Alifa was herself a kind of a portrait for those social issues she suffered from, beginning with being forced to marry a man whom she never loved or even thought about, Alifa also talked about issues like sex, death, marriage, masturbation, clitoridectomy, love, teenage pregnancy, widowhood, and loss along with other controversial topics. In the paper, both descriptive and analytical methods will be used to answer many questions that will be faced. The relationship between the real life of the author and the characters of some works will proof whether this writer reflects her character in her work or it was just a matter or creative writing about those issues mentioned above. As it can be said that both Fatima Rifaat and the whole issue of Muslim Arab women writers are not appreciated in a way it must be, this paper is intended to be an easy handout represents an apology and an easy access for Muslim Arab women writers, this is the reason why the main writer will be referred to as Fatima Rifaat not as Alifa Rifaat because one shall be proud of the real name and talent of a writer who-at that time- could not be able to at least mention her real name.
Keywords: Feminism, Clitoridectomy, Pseudonym.

The Forbidden Quest for Knowledge in Doctor Faustus and Paradise Lost
Shereen Abu Hait and Nayera Al Miniawi

Despite an enormous difference in content and plot, Doctor Faustus by Christopher Marlowe and Paradise Lost by John Milton share a great deal in common in term of themes presented in both work. In both Doctor Faustus and paradise Lost, the quest for knowledge is not a noble pursuit with great rewards at the end, but rather it proves to be a means to an end. In each work, knowledge that is not directly accessible in either of the narrative's world is tempting to be attained but is dangerous. The main characters in both Doctor Faustus and paradise Lost strive to bestow knowledge and understand that they have been forbidden and this leads to eventual gaining of knowledge, yet the consequences are tremendously fatal. In conclusion, both works represent biblical truth and ferocious consequences of disobedience. Questions of the study:
1. What are the themes that both works share?
2. What is the forbidden quest of knowledge conveyed in both works?
3. What are the common consequences of the forbidden quest that both works share?

Keywords: Quest for Knowledge, Christian Conscience, Path to Damnation.

The Participative Leadership in the Implementation of Enterprise Resources Planning and Human Resources Management (Top Companies Esfahan City Case Study)

Mohammad Reza Dalvi, Hadis Ebrahimi, Marzieh Bagheri Ghaleh Salimi and Hossein Mirmojarabian

The human resources management system is one of the main bases in every human resources planning system. The human resources planning system is a trade software pack that strives to integrate information flow among all of the organizational departments such as financial, human resources, supply chain, and customer management sections. This system provides a proper ground for management decisions through improving information quality in all of the organizational departments. Therefore, the present study was aimed to develop and present a proper framework from participative leadership application in the human resources management systems implementation and enterprise resources planning system. The statistical population of this study includes selective companies in Isfahan province and a sample of 110 senior and middle managers has been selected for survey through random cluster sampling. This study is a practical research from purpose view and is a descriptive-survey one from methodological perspective. The SPSS and Amos have been employed for testing the hypotheses. The fitness indexes are 0.985 for AGFI and 0.08 for RMSEA that confirm model fitness. The results of this study can be used by experts and managers in designing human resources planning in order to achieve more efficiency and productivity in their organizations.
Keywords: Team, Participative Leadership, Enterprise Resources Planning, Human Resources Management System.

Developing Trends of SOC and Embedded System

Monire Norouzi, Alireza Souri and Mohammad Esmaeel Akbari

The Soc is a new form of embedded system, which integrates microprocessor, analog IP cores, digital IP core and memory (or off-chip memory controller interface) on a single chip. It is usually customized (CSIC) or a standard product for particular purposes (ASSP). It successfully integrate the hardware integrated circuits and embedded software, which can implement the computer system functions, on a silicon chip, and it belongs to the emerging cross-disciplinary for computer and microelectronics Soc represents a new generation of technology development of embedded processor, its design technology provides an opportunity for computer professionals to be involved in IC design area. And SOC design is still hot now in application design and other areas like microelectronics technology.
Keywords: SOC; embedded; applications; technology

The Relationship between the Public Participation and the Increase of the Sustainable Incomes in Tehran Municipality
Saeid Nikoomaram and Masomeh Derakhshan Hore

As the capital of Iran, Tehran metropolis encompasses more than 11% of the Iranian population and it faces fundamental challenges in its urban management. One of these fundamental challenges is the lack of sustainable incomes in Tehran municipality. This issue has made several problems for the urban management plans. In this research we have tried to study the relationship between the public participation and the sustainable income in Tehran municipality. We propose three hypotheses based on three components: socio-cultural component, rules and regulations, and supportive programs of the municipality. This research is a functional study in terms of its objective and it is library and filed study in terms of its nature. The instrument of data collection is a researcher-made questionnaire where its Cronbach's alpha is equal to 98%. The statistical population of the research includes 1984 and its sample includes 250 subjects. To analyze the data we have used ?2 test, Pearson's correlation coefficient test, and Friedman's test. Based on the results of these tests some suggestions will be offered. The results of this research shows that there is a significant relationship between our three hypotheses and the sustainable income; while the component of rules and regulations obtained the highest rank among the proposed components in terms of Friedman ranking test.
Keywords: Increase of the sustainable incomes, Municipality, Public participation

Geoprocessing Operations in Automation of GI Product lines in NCC


In the recent years, innovation of GI Systems, have encouraged people to make spatialand non spatial data sources compatible with GIS structure. As in many countries, in Iran(National Cartographic Center of Iran), there is a great current intension to replacetraditional cartographic styles for data preparation, with GIS suitable methods. This greatintension has been resulted from the general and common customer requirements of NCCproducts. Regardless of customer pressure, traditional cartographic methods areassociated with high volume of time consumption, high expenses and technical problems. Such reasons significantly push the NCC to find GI solutions.During the last two years, Geospatial functions have been deposited wonderful ability tohandle spatial data. Rather than independent deployment of simple spatial functions,combination of spatial functions has exhibited wonderful power to solve current andpotential problems of NCC. Regulation of standard spatial imperative language causessignificant innovations in distribution of common solutions among GIS specialists. Suchidea besides the standardization process for sensor outputs, conceptual model structuresand spatial implementation routines let the GIS specialists to design and come over themore sophisticated spatial problems. The main concept is to expand the spatial functions usage as the mathematical functions are used to solve the math problems. This specific aspect, lead us to new space where the basic elements are the spatial functions. In addition, function fusing opinion can be deployed in clearly same way to form new spatial modules is so called spatial matrices. This solution revolutionary change the way GIS specialists work to setup different GIS project data preparation and management. This should be done while traditional methods force the GIS analysts to consume their power in primary parts of projects instead of the more important parts which forms the main structure of GIS system

The Role of Hydro - Power and Hydroelectric Power Plants in the World (Case Study: Sangtodeh 2 Hydroelectric Plant in Tajikistan)
Mehran Ahbabi

Today, the energy crisis and how it is produced, one of the main challenges in economic development. Mankind has struggled to achieve the renewable energy and clean, Factors such as: high cost of fossil fuels for energy and Limited reserves of fossil fuels, Environmental concerns, Population Growth, Economic growth and high consumption rate. Electrical energy as a clean and reliable energy plays an important role in economic development, social welfare, agricultural and industrial development in the world today. Therefore, the construction of hydroelectric plants has been used as a cheap source of energy, renewable and secure in most countries of the world. Tajikistan is a mountainous country, 93% is mountainous. It was rainy and the volume of water is estimated at about 60 billion cubic meters. Approximately 60% of the country's water flows in the major rivers with Permanent and annual regime. Because of the volume of water resources, One of the major Strategies Government of Tajikistan is to generate electricity as a source of clean energy, renewable and reliable, Because of the widespread use of electricity in different sectors of industrial, urban and agricultural country, And having significant reserves of oil and gas. In this paper, the status and importance of hydroelectric plants and their variants have been investigated as sources of renewable energy and clean. The natural potential for effective use of hydroelectric plants in Tajikistan and current conditions of the industry and the construction of hydroelectric dams and foresight and investment in this sector for the country's self-sufficiency in electricity production in the region and world has been analyzed. Finally, as an example, Dam and Hydroelectric Power Plant built Sangtodeh 2 of hydroelectric plants in Tajikistan has been introduced and analyzed.
Keywords: Renewable energy, hydroelectricity, hydroelectric power, hydroelectric pumped storage, hydro power resources of Tajikistan, hydroelectric Sangtodeh 2