American Journal of Scientific Research

Issue 95
Jan, 2014

Electronic Customer Relationship Management (E-CRM) and Customer Loyalty (Case Study: Pooya Negar Fanavar Company)
Azadeh Abedini and Hadi Teimouri

With the increasing spread of electronic commerce, new opportunities have been created for companies and organizations to provide services to their customers. If an organization fails in this regard it will easily lose its market share and this led to the destruction of that company. Companies should try different ways to create a sense of loyalty to their customers in order to differentiate themselves to other companies. One of these methods is the use of electronic customer relationship management. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of electronic customer relationship management on customer loyalty. The customers of Pooya Negar Fanavar Company were selected for this purpose. We use the simple random sampling method in order to study these customers. A pilot study was conducted by distributing some random questionnaire among the samples. The sample size was estimated by using appropriate formulas and estimating the variance of the samples. The result of data analysis revealed that Service Quality, Availability of information via the Internet, saving time, Trust and reliability, Understanding customer needs can be effective on the samples royalty to the Pooya Negar Fanavar Company.
Keyword: Customer Relationship Management, Electronic Customer Relationship Management, Customer Loyalty.

The Relation of Hermeneutic with Art and Aesthetic
Hadi Gholami Nourabad and Seyed Iman Mousavi

Hermeneutic is a kind of "logic and science". So it is placed against "logic and science based on dialectic" and also against "logic and science based on new sciences and methodology". In logic and science based on new sciences, research is carried out and the science is attained based on sciences methodology. The word hermeneutic is originally Greek and normally it refers to the "science of interpretation and tact" particularly as regards religious texts; albeit an interpretation and tact that by a kind of reference to the first meanings of sequence, hermeneutic becomes distinct from causal explanation and conceptual thought. That is, sometimes in thought we only pay attention to determination of phenomena causes and/or classification of concepts and their sequence towards each other. The science that is resulted so is more acquisitive and typically in this kind of thought its presence and origin is not taken into account, because reference of acquisitive science – that has been classified into "imagination" and "ratification"- is always towards a particular presence and reference of presence is towards fear that is attained in confronting truth. Works of art from long ago in different cultures have indeed raised a similar issue in the contemporary world: they are not easily perceivable, they seem enigmatic and they may seem ambiguous. Objective of contemporary hermeneutic has been described as retrieving "sound" of those works of art that can no longer "speak" in a clear and unmediated manner. This paper is a critical introduction to the legacy and ideals of hermeneutic theory and aims at investigating its relation with understanding, theory and function of art. Subsections of this paper will discuss about classic roots of the word hermeneutic and its subsequent developments, nature of hermeneutic and in general, the relation of its methods with art theory. Assumptions of the main philosophy of hermeneutic approach towards art will be reviewed in a systematic manner, and ultimately a plan for the impact of hermeneutic on expressive arts will be presented.
Keywords: Hermeneutic, Art, Philosophy of Art, Aesthetic, Aesthetics

Relationship between Environmental Factors and Insurance Strategies

Mahdiyeh Mirzajani, Neda Navabi, Lida Sadeghi and Shiva Sadeghi

The main objective of this study was determining the relationship between environmental constraints affecting insurance strategies. This research was applied and descriptive. Moreover, sample test included 340 people of experts who have higher 3 years experiences. We used Pearson correlation in order to test relationship between political, regularity, law, legal, economical, technological, and socio-cultural as independent variable and insurance strategies as dependent variable. Results indicated that political, regularity, legal with Pearson coefficient had the highest and technological, economical factors with 0.18 had the lowest relationship with insurance strategy.
Keywords: Strategic Management, Strategy Execution, Strategy, Environmental Factors, Insurance.

Relationship between Structural Elements and Academic Entrepreneurship

Seyed Ali Vaziri and Narjes Safari

Various institutional arrangements in universities could lead to different attitudes towards the commercial exploitation of the results of basic research in universities. Present study examined the relationship between the structural elements and Entrepreneurship University. Structural factors include type of structure, scientific structure, and sub-units of university, educational affair, official affair and financial affair. The results indicates significant relationship exists between structural elements and entrepreneurial university. Moreover results showed that despite being positively associated between academic entrepreneurship and organizational structure, it cannot be predictable academic entrepreneurship by type of structure, scientific structure, and sub-units of university, educational affair, official affair and financial affair. Meanwhile, based on analysis of T-student just type of structure had a significant positive correlation with academic entrepreneurship.
Keywords: Structural Elements, Entrepreneurship, Type of Structure.

The Effectiveness of Adjustment Training Program on Adjustment of Girl Students of Divorced Families

Razieh Khakian, Maryam Fatehizadeh and Iran Baghban

Introduction: Divorce is one of problems in all human societies, divorce has adverse effects including economic, social and psychological, on all members of families and especially children. Purpose of study: This study aims at analysis the effectiveness of adjustment training program on adjustment of girl students of divorced families in elementary school level in Esfahan. Method: This study is a semi-experimental of pretest-posttest kind which has a control group. Population of this study was elementary girl students from divorced families in Esfahan. The sample of 30 girl students of divorced families was selected and put into two groups of control and experimental randomly. Students in the experimental group were given the treatment of adjustment programs for 8 sessions and at the end both groups were post-tested. The instrument which was used was Sinha and Singh (1993) adjustment questionnaire. Data were analyzed through Covariance analysis and by SPSS software. Results: The results indicated that training adjustment program was not significant to adjustment and adjustment dimensions (p>0.05). Conclusion: The research results showed that the adjustment with divorced parents program was not significantly effective on adjustment and its dimensions in girl students from divorced families.
Keywords: Adjustment program, divorce, girl student, primary school.

Developing a Model of Learning at the Islamic Azad University (Case Region13 Universities) of Iran

Tohid Eskandarzadeh, Asadollah Khadivi and Nader Bohlooli

This paper is about to investigate the features in a learner organization employing Peter Senge model from different perspectives of personal capabilities, mental models, common views, team learning, and system thinking in area 13 at Islamic Azad University. Also, we have tried to test their applicability in the mentioned universities using a practical pattern. The main method of collecting data has been a questionnaire with 65 indicators using contrastive as well as international and local studies in Sersotoon method. This is an applied work in which survey method was used. The subjects were all the teachers in management, educational science, higher education management, educational management, lesson planning, and educational psychology at Islamic Azad University, 13 region. The group included 118 college teachers. Clustered and relative stratified sampling was employed. To describe the data, descriptive statistics and for the analysis T-test, functional analysis, and descriptive statistics were used. To answer the first question, after extracting 5 items using Peter Senge pattern the uni-sample t-test was used. According to results all the 5 items of the learning university are verified based on research samples. To answer the second question, functional analysis was used. The coefficient variable and 5-item factors were identified after Varimax turning and analysis of subjects' views based on values including mental models, systemic view, team learning, personal capabilities, and common objectives. For the third question the score of 8.92 out of 10 for the proposed model based on the subjects' answers revealed that this pattern is of paramount significance.
Keywords: Learning Organization - Learning University – Islamic Azad University.

Impact of Trade Liberalization on Deindustrialization
Asif Shamim and Tehseen Iqbal

Does free trade cause growth, or it is only a myth. This paper analytically attempts to dig into the issue, though the answer to the question appears not to be affirmative. According to Dr. Asad Zaman, “It has been a long journey of mind and heart since I first began to suspect that all that I had been taught, in the finest universities in the USA with many Nobel Prize winners among my teachers and colleagues, was questionable. The first step was when I read Paul Bairoch’s Economics and World History: Myths and Paradoxes, which provided empirical evidence on several historical episodes that the growth had occurred as a consequence of restrictions on trade, and depressions resulted as a consequence of free trade policies.”

Test Method Effects on the Reading Comprehension Performance

Reza Biria, Fatemeh Karimi, Saeedeh Sanjari and Ahmad Roostaei Shalmani

This study investigated the relative effects of three test methods - multiple choice, cloze test and short answer - on reading comprehension. The tests together with retrospective questionnaire were administered to 63 undergraduate Iranian EFL students. Participants were asked to take the tests and determine the most common process they used in taking the test. It was found that the three test methods had a significant effect on reading comprehension. Cloze test appeared as the most difficult test as the respondents achieved the lowest score in this test. While multiple- choice questions and short answer questions were easier because the respondents achieved higher scores on multiple – choice and short answer questions respectively. It was also found that the process used by the students for three test method was different.
Keywords: Test Method Effect, Reading Comprehension, Response Format, Iranian EFL Students.

Role of Personality Traits and Attitude on Decision Making among Students University

Mehdi Khorvash, Simin Rafieian Isfahani, Mohammad Reza and R, Iravani

Understanding role of the personality traits and attitude between students who are concerned in marketing is a crucial issue prior to starting any intervention programs. It may provide effects on all behaviors and change consumers' decision making. This study was conducted to examine the predictive relationship between personality traits and attitudes and consumer students’ decision making. The study employed survey research involving the administration of three standardized psychological tests which were the Big five (Mini Marker) Personality traits, Perception & Attitude scale and the 5 Phases Decision Making Questionnaire. A total of 375 students who were local people participated in this study. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation and multiple regression analysis. Results showed that there was relationship between attitudes and students’ decision making. Results also demonstrated that conscientiousness, emotion stability traits and positive attitudes high significantly predicted the of students decision making in Malaysia.

Predict of Personality Traits on Energy Consumption Behavior among Iranian Consumers
Simin Rafieian Isfahani and Mehdi Khorvash

This study was examine predict of personality traits on Energy consumption behavior among Iranian Consumers. Participants of this study consisted 384of households that was selected randomly. This study used questionnaire for data collection that was Big Five-factor of Personality traits Analyze of data was performed by using statistical techniques such as independent sample multiple regression. Results showed that there was relationship between one types of personality traits and Energy consumption behavior. Also, founding of this study demonstrated that emotional stability traits predicted of Energy consumption behavior among Iranian consumers.
Keywords: Consumer Behavior, Personality Traits, Emotional Stability, Extraversion, Openness, Conscientiousness, Agreeableness

A Novel Fuzzy Logic Approach Toward Medical Image Enhancement

Arash Salehpoor

Image enhancement is one of the most important issues of image processing and analysis. Medical images mostly contain noise. Therefore, accurate enhancement of medical images is highly challenging. However, accurate enhancement of these images is very important in correct diagnosis by clinical tools. Fuzzy logic has been found many applications in image processing, pattern recognition, etc. Fuzzy set theory is a useful tool for handling the uncertainty in the images associated with vagueness and/or imprecision. In this paper, we proposed a new method for image enhancement based on fuzzy set logic.
Keywords: Image Processing, Medical Image, Image Enhancement, Fuzzy Logic.

A Review on Particle Swarm Optimization and the Chronology of its Development

Mohammad Khalilzadeh and Ramin Golestaneh

The Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is an evolutionary-based meta-heuristic algorithm inspired by social behavior of swarms in nature. The fundamental concepts and principles of the method based on collision avoidance, flock centering, and velocity matching were first introduced in the middle of 1990s. Since then, during a relatively short period of time, it has been used in wide application domains ranging from biological and medical subjects to music composition, computer graphics, aeronautics and astronautics, and scheduling problems. It has been shown that compared with other state-of-the-art heuristic and meta-heuristic algorithms, PSO yields good performance and it is an important tool for solving complex multi-dimensional, multi-objective and constrained optimization problems. This paper provides a brief and timely review of PSO along with the chronology of its evolution. All main PSO-based methods particularly the recent ones, are surveyed and the development and refinements of the algorithm are presented.
Keywords: PSO, Meta-Heuristic Algorithm, Swarm Intelligence.

Comparative Study of Behavioral Barriers of Corporate Entrepreneurship in the Private and State Banks
Mohammad Kamrani Kanafi and Mohammad Reza Meigounpoory

In the process of rapid changes that have created through communication technologies in the context of knowledge-based economy traditional thinking about arm power, replaced by the power of thought and knowledge. Management of human thought has high value more than any other times. Some scientists called this time period the age of entrepreneurship. No doubt organizations today are faced with a wide developments and threats. Assure the sustaining life and organizations survival need to find solutions and new ways of dealing with problems that depends on innovation, to create products, processes and new methods. This study sought to investigate the comparative behavioral barriers to entrepreneurship in the state and private banks. This study was a survey study and for collecting data questionnaire was used that its reliability was approved by Cronbach alpha (0.94 percent). The study population included 170 manager and experts in state sector and 146 managers and experts in the private sector. Data analysis was performed using SPSS software and statistical analysis of the binomial test, Friedman's analysis of variance and factor analysis were used. Behavioral barriers that have been examined in this study include personality characteristics of staff, stress and organizational conflict, organizational culture and leadership style. Results of the analysis indicate that organizational culture, the characteristics of managers and employees in state banks and characteristics of managers and employees and organizational culture orderly in private banks are as effective behavioral barriers.
Keywords: Behavioral Barriers, Organizational Entrepreneurship, Banking Industry.

Studies about Surgery Segment of Hospital

Hossein Sodagar and Sharareh Sodagar

It is better to use automotive doors for operation rooms. Operation room's walls should be in Semi-opaque form and green or light blue color and washable. The advantage of being Semi-opaque is that it decreases surgeon's eyestrain and other operation team members by controlling light reflection from the walls. Roof of operation room should be considered as acoustic form with flat and washable surface. Central piping of medical gases is very critical for operation room so that using capsules containing these gases is minimized. Input air should be free from microbe, temperature and relative humidity of the space should be controlled and it is recommended to use temperature 22 degrees for operation room. Installing window for operation rooms is not suggested for such reasons as disturbing set light of the room due to entrance of natural light and penetration of soil from window seam into operation room. Floor in operation room should be antistatic, noise free, washable and resistant against chemicals. It should be free from any hole and water outlet.
Keywords: Operation Room, Wall of Operation Room, Medical Gases, Roof of Operation Room

Novel Method for Utilization and Detection of Islanding of Small Scale Generators
O. Ghafelebashi, M. E. Seighalani Varzali and M. S. Naderi

Electricity demand has increased pressure on extension of generation and distribution capacity, all around the world. This is an undesirable stage in modern restructured electrical industry which is trying to improve efficiency at the minimum cost. The obvious economical solution is avoiding conventional development and utilizing distributed generation capability which provides nearby consumer with needed power. Using this category of power generators in the grid has various advantages as well as its problems. One of the problems, which is usually caused by distributed generation, is islanding phenomenon. In this study a novel approach is proposed to detect islanding phenomenon for small scaled generators. Experimental results prove its speed and precision in detection of islanding phenomenon. Here, grid will continue its operation by using load shedding. When islanding is detected, special control system designed for DG synchronization is exploited to reconnect DG after fault compensation.
Keywords: Distributed Generation, Islanding, Small Scale Generators, Voltage Protection, Frequency Protection.