American Journal of Scientific Research

Issue 96
Jan, 2014

The Effect of using Technology on Deaf Students'Achievement in Science
5-12
Nedal Mufleh Al Raheem Kawafhh

Abstract:
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of using technology in teaching science in Al Amal School in Amman on deaf studentsí performance. The researcher followed the equivalent pre/post T test two group designs. To achieve the aim of the study, a pre/post-test was constructed to measure deaf students' performance in science. The sample of this study consisted of 60 students; twenty eight male students and thirty two female students from Al Amal School for deaf students during the second semester of the academic year 2013/2014. The subjects of the study were distributed into two groups (experimental group and control group). The experimental group was taught science using technology while the control group was taught science using the traditional way of teaching. The subjects were 15 male students for the experimental group and 13 male students for the control group, while the female students for the experimental and control group were 15 and 17 respectively. Those subjects were distributed into two purposefully selected sections in Al Amal School in Amman. Descriptive statistical analyses were used (means and standard deviation) for the pre and post- tests of deaf students' science test to experimental and control groups. Comparison statistical methods were used (Two Way Anova) analysis of variance to make a comparison between the control and the experimental groups and gender variable (male and female). The findings of the study indicated that there were statistically significant differences in the post- test between the control and the experimental groups in favor of the experimental group, and there was no statistically significant difference in the deaf students' achievement due to gender. There was no statistically significant difference due to the interaction between gender and group. The researcher proposed some recommendations to enhance the effect of using technology in teaching science on deaf students' performance such as conducting further studies.
Keyword: Deaf Students, Technology Instruction.

Biotechnology Contribution of Genetic Transformation: Fight against Viral and Bacterial Diseases Wheat Phytopathology
13-20
D.C. Tinak Ekom, M.N. Benchekroun, S.M. Udupa, D. Iraqi and M.M. Ennajibr />
Abstract:
Biotic stresses, especially bacteria and viruses, are among the primary causes of considerable wheat crop loss worldwide. These two diseases are spread differently. Bacteria are most often spread by wind, water and insects and they are kept in the seed, plant debris and soil whereas viruses are likely to be transmitted by aphids, leafhoppers, mites, soils contaminated with fungal vector and seed. Although a variety treatment with chemicals have been used to alleviate the problem of bacteria and viruses, genetic transformation seems to be an efficient and economic means of tailoring wheat crops to enable them to grow successfully in bacteria/viruses-prone environments. However, there is very few works done in this regard. In the majority of the cases, the genes showing expression in transgenic plants are stably inherited into the progeny without detrimental effects on the recipient plant.
Keywords: Bacteria, Viruses, Genetic Transformation, Wheat crop loss.


Solving Coverage Problem in Wireless Camera-Based Sensor Networks by using a Distributed Evolutionary Algorithm

21-27
Ahmad Habibi Zadnavin

Abstract:
Wireless camera-based sensor networks have emerged as an important class of sensor-based distributed intelligent systems. These networks consist of large number of low-power camera nodes to monitor an environment such as airports, museums, traffic control, military applications etc. One of the more important problems in smart networks is camera coverage control. It is necessary to allow automatic tracking of targets and monitoring the environment without human intervention, allowing these systems to scale. Since this problem is NP-hard, even for static targets, so Meta heuristic method such as genetic algorithm, Particle Swarm Optimization have been proposed to achieve near-optimal solution, which are with high time complexity. To overcome problem the distributed particle swarm optimization is examined in this paper. Simulation results show that the distributed particle swarm optimization results near-optimal solution faster.
Keywords: Wireless Camera-based Sensor Networks, PSO.


Stock Price Forecasting through Integration of Legendre Neural Network with a Random Time Strength Function in Metaallic Mineral Inductry of Tehran Stock Exchange

28-37
Ali Akbar Farzinfar and MohaddesehAbedini

Abstract:
Investment in stock market has turned out to be one of the most crucial sectors of society economy. That's why stock price forecasting is of great importance for stockholders. Stock market prediction has long been in the center of attention during financial time series forecasting. The present study was formulated in order to determine and forecast stock price through using an improved Legendre neural network in which Legendre polynomials are adopted for hidden layer activation function. Furthermore, since historical data are able to affect stock market fluctuations, a random time strength function is introduced in prediction model in order to weight each historical data. The function consists of drift and volatility functions showing effect of volatilities trend in random differential function on the mean time series and effect of volatilities in random differential function on time series variance, respectively. Four different algorithms with different pairs of drift and volatilities functions were designed for each firm in order to analyze the sensitivity of random time strength function. The obtained results via three determination criteria (i.e. RMSE, MAPE, and R2) indicated that use of both drift and volatilities functions in the prediction model results in fewer errors compared to three other algorithms. In other words, the given algorithm increases financial forecasting accuracy in the network.
Keywords: Forecasting, Stock Price, Legendre Neural Network, Random Time Strength Function.


Investigating the Effect of Organizational Spiritualit on Deviational Behaviors of South Pars Economic Energy Organization Staff

38-45
Hassan Fagih Abdollahi, Yaser Hamedi, Mohammad Khodadadi and Jila Vahabzadeh

Abstract:
The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of organizational spirituality on south Pars Economic Energy personnel's deviational behavior. The methodology of this study was practical, descriptive and correlational. The duration of this research was a ten-month period which started from the middle of May and ended in the late march 2012. Data collection was done through a questionnaire in November and December 2012. The participants of this study included 325 personnel of south Pars Economic Energy Organization who were selected randomly by using Morgan table and the data were collected thorough two questionnaires on organizational spirituality and deviational behavior. In order to determine the validity of the questionnaire, Cronbach alpha was used for 30 and 325 questionnaires for which the reliability for 30 questionnaires was 0.819 and for 325 questionnaires. By means of C.H.Laush, the content validity of the methodology was confirmed. To test the hypothesis, descriptive statistics was used to describe the features of the variables, and inferential statistics particularly modeling structural equations was used to analyze regression and path analysis. All the assumptions of the study were confirmed and it was indicated that meaningful job, solidarity and the conformation values had a reverse effect on deviational behavior of the personnel. Finally, there are also some suggestions for further research and on the hypothesis of the study.
Keywords: Organizational Spirituality, Deviational Behaviors, South Pars Economic Energy Organization.


The Impact of Talents Management System Implementation on Organizational Brand Promotion in Pardis Petrochemical Company

46-54
Zabihollah Mazarei, Esfandiar Mohammadi and Mohammad Taban

Abstract:
Today; organizations have found the necessity of the best talents to prosper in this global complicated economy and also to be survived in recent business. These talents, as organizational vital resources, should be recruited and aligned, developed and retained. Therefore; to get most likely results, the presence of talents management system is unavoidable. As a significant issue in marketing, the role and effect of brand are being realized by organizations, likewise. Could talents management effects on brand promotion? the question which sets forth for discussion in this regard and orients the study. This study is applicable objectively; descriptive, and surveying strategically. Data gathering is subjective; with library and field study literature, and contains a 46-question questionnaire whose content validity has been confirmed by supervisor and advisor, and some expert; and reliability approved through Cronbach's Alfa to 96%. All qualitative personnel of Pardis petrochemical company included in statistic population of this study in which, random sample was determined through the Morgan table. The collected data was analyzed through descriptive statistics formulas such as: frequency, mean and standard deviation, and inferential statistics such as: Spearman correlation coefficient, regression and SPSS. The results show that, talents management and due indicators affect on the brand promotion, positively and significantly.
Keywords: Talents management, talents recruitment and alignment, talents development and talents retention, and brand promotion.

The Effects of Lifelong Learning on the Personnel's Creativity Case Study: the Personnel of Qeshm Free Trade Zone
55-61
Leila Abdoli

Abstract:
Undoubtedly, personnel's creativity is one of the most important needs of organizations in the change era. To stay in the competition arena, the organizations need personnel who can create ideas for solving job issues and tensions. Therefore, training creative and innovative personnel is one of the essential activities of the organizations. Constant training and learning is one of the methods of training creative personnel. In the present research, we have dealt with the effects of long-term and constant training on the creativity of the personnel of Qeshm free trade zone. The results show that the methods of constant training have had positive and significant effects on the personnel's creativity.
Keywords: Lifelong Learning, Personnel's Creativity, Personnel's Innovation.



Analyzing the Effects of Training on the Personnel's Empowerment; Case Study: the Personnel of Qeshm Free Trade Zone Organization

62-69
Leila Abdoli

Abstract:
The conditions for attending the sustainable environment for the organizations those want to succeed are to utilize the efficient and capable human resources. Empowerment is a way to create participation spirit among the personnel by the process of intromitting and assigning responsibilities to them which will encourage them in the field of decision making in their own works and will result in more power and proficiencies in their job. This research investigates the role of raining methods in empowering the personnel of Qeshm free trade zone organization that is in two forms of in-service training and virtual training. After the initial random sampling from the almost large population, screening was performed for appropriate or inappropriate training and the final sample which had received appropriate training according to their work background, was extracted and the relationship between their capability and the training method was scrutinized and at the end, a meaningful relationship among both in-service training and virtual training and empowerment was found. Also the effects of in-service training on personnel's capability were more than those of virtual methods.
Keywords: Personnel Empowerment, Training Methods, in-Service Training, Virtual Training.


Impact of Financial Leverage on Financial Performance Evidence from Oil and Gas Sector of Pakistan

70-81
Mubbsher Munawar Khan, Wasim Ul Rehman, Zia Ur Rehman and Qundeel Nawaz Dodhy.

Abstract:
The study emphasizes on effect of financial leverage on firmís efficiency of quoted oil and gas sector in Pakistan over the period of 2007 to 2011. This empirical study analyzes 11 quoted companies from fuel sector to explore the influences of financial leverage on firmís efficiency. The sample comprises of ninety one percent of the total population of the said sector quoted at Karachi Stock Exchange. The study examines the panel data by applying econometric techniques of fixed and random effect model estimation. The results suggest that financial leverage exhibits a negative but statistically significant impact on returns on equity (ROEit) where degree of financial leverage (DFLit) and debt ratio (TD/TAit) are negatively related with ROEit. The results conclude a significant and negative impact of financial leverage on return on assets (ROAit) by exhibiting negative relationship with debt ratio. The study reports a significant and negative effect of financial leverage on return on capital (ROCit) where debt ratio is negatively correlated with (ROCit). The findings of the study show a positive impact of financial leverage on net profit margin and earnings per share (EPSit). The findings depict that debt to equity ratio (DEit), DFLit and debt ratio are positively correlated with net profit margin and EPSit.

Keywords: Financial Leverage, Financial Performance, Oil and Gas Sector, Pakistan.

An Analysis of Intellectual Capital Effect on Organizational Commitment
82-87
Hojjat Taheri Goodarzi and Sahar Khosrovani Mehr

Abstract:
The purpose of this study is to determine whether organizational investments from an intellectual capital perspective have an influence on employee commitment in Saderat Bank of Kermanshah Province. We investigate intellectual capital as three components: human capital, social capital, and organizational capital. The results showed that the social capital and organizational capital don't have any significant effect on the organizational commitment, but the human capital has a significant effect on organizational commitment.
Keywords: Intellectual Capital, Human Capital, Social Capital, Organizational Capital, Organizational Commitment.


Building a Token Reinforcement Program and Measuring Its Effects on Improving Social Interaction Skills and Communication among Autistic Children

88-99
Randa Mousa Momani

Abstract:
This study aimed to building of a token reinforcement program and measuring its effects in improving social interaction and communication among autistic children. The sample consisted of the study (20) children with autistic disorder were selected from Consulting Centre of Autism, and between the ages of (9-5) years and have no disabilities sensory, were divided randomly into two groups: experimental (10) children, and the control group (10) children, and applied them a measure of social interaction for children with autism, and the measure of communication for children with autism, after verification of validity and reliability semantics. A program token reinforcement on the experimental group only, while the control group was encouraged as a conventional program and applied to the center, took the application of the program two months at (48) training session, distributed (6) sessions per week individual and society, and the duration per session (30 minutes). The presence of statistically significant differences at the level (a = 0.05) among the individuals of both (experimental and control) groups for the social interaction due to the strengthening program. The presence of statistically significant differences at the level (a = 0.05) among the individuals of both (experimental and control) groups for the Communication due to the strengthening program. There are no statistically significant differences in the social interaction among the individuals experimental group between the pre-measurement and follow-up due to the strengthening program. There are no statistically significant differences in the Communication among the individuals experimental group between the pre-measurement and follow-up due to the strengthening program. In light of the results of the study provided a set of recommendations for teachers and educational specialists and parents of autistic children can benefit from them in the care of their children and develop their abilities, as well as recommending some of the studies in this area.


A Learning System to Identify Decision Deviations to Support Multifunction Committee in Construction Project Portfolio Selection

100-110
Mohammad Emami, Seyed Hossein Iranmanesh and Masoud Oulapour

Abstract:
With regards to the decisive role of programs and projects in prosperity of enterprises, optimal selection becomes a serious challenge. Given the importance of this subject, multifunction committees in organizations generally make decisions by taking various criteria into account. Group decisions in these committees might be influenced by the moral and mental conditions of decision makers. This research was directed at designing a system capable of monitoring the procedure of decisions and to identify those cases that have a significant difference with previous decision trends. The architecture of this system is based on Adaptive-Network-based Fuzzy Inference Systems (ANFIS) and network training is conducted using gradient-based methods. The validity of systemís performance in terms of simulation of the teamís previous treatment is analyzed with the difference of two standard errors. It determined that the system follows up teamís treatment suitably. Decisions which are inconsistent with regular procedure can be extracted for approval by companyís managers. For making more successful decisions, this model provides an infrastructure. Frameworks designed for this study are applicable to a wide range of decisions made at project-based organizations.
Keywords: Project portfolio, Project selection, Expert system, ANFIS, Decision Support system, Group decisioning.

Application of Extended Adomianís Decomposition Method for Nonlinear Fractional Partial Differential Equations in Physics
111-118
Jamshad Ahmad and Syed Tauseef Mohyud-Din

Abstract:
In this paper, we extended the application of Adomianís decomposition method (ADM) using power series to handle the nonlinear fractional partial differential equations arising in diverse field of mathematical physics. The effectiveness of the modification is verified by several examples. The simplicity and also easy to apply in programming are two special features of this extension. It was found that the results obtained by the above method are in excellent agreement with the exact solution.
Keywords: Fractional Calculus, Jumarieís Derivative, Fractional Differential Equation, Adomianís Decomposition Method, Analytical Solutions.


The Relationship between Metacognitive Strategies and Iranian Efl Learners' Reading Comprehension with Different Language Proficiency Levels

119-129
Amir Reza Nemat Tabrizi and Islam Beigy Pour

Abstract:
The current article aimed at investigating the relationship between metacognitive strategies and Iranian EFL learners' reading comprehension ability with different language proficiency levels. To do so, 150 high school students (males and females) selected randomly were asked to take part in study. Learners were classified into three proficiency levels: elementary, intermediate, and advance. They were asked to answer the Nelson's reading comprehension test while completing Metacognitive Awareness of Reading Strategies Inventory (MARSI). In order to find out the relationship between metacognitive strategies and Iranian EFL learners' reading comprehension the researchers calculated Pearson correlation. A strong relationship was found between Iranian learners' metacognitive strategies and their reading comprehension. The results of One-way ANOVA showed that there was a significant difference between learners in three levels. Also, elementary learners reported using these strategies least frequently.
Keywords: Metacognitive Strategies, Proficiency Level, Reading Comprehension.

The Impact of Nature of Institute on Entrepreneurial Marketing: The Moderating Role of Organizational Structure
130-138
Mehran Rezvani, Meisam Shirkhodaie and Morteza Khazaei

Abstract:
This paper investigates the effect of nature of institute on entrepreneurial marketing in higher education institutions. Nature of institute characteristics such as, age, and size are studied to find whether they affect entrepreneurial marketing or not. Organizational structure is a moderating variable in this study. This investigation has been conducted in Tehran-Iran, between higher education institutions. Data were collected with questionnaire instruments. Model was developed and tested with structural equation model using data collected from the 103 active managers of these institutions. The results show that age of institute has a positive effect on organizational structure. And organizational structure has a positive effect on entrepreneurial marketing while age of institute doesn't have any effect on entrepreneurial marketing and organizational structure.
Keywords: Entrepreneurial Marketing, Nature of Institute, Organizational Structure, Higher Education Institutions Contaminated.