American Journal of Scientific Research

Issue 97
Jan, 2014

The Observation about Persian Painting in India Genealogy
Bahareh Barati and Fatemeh Javadi

The objective in present paper is to observe the Persian painting in India genealogy, so that it has been concluded that the history of painting art in India turns back to BC, and in the walls of several historical buildings like Agenta caves and various temples in the south of the state, many symbols could be observed, but painting in the books which is known with miniature got popular in Islamic states, whereas it was not common in India and it started in thirteenth century coming from Iran to India.
Keyword: Persian painting, India genealogy, India, unique Portraiture.

An Evaluation of Effective Parameters in Customer Attraction with a Focus on Strategic Management Techniques
Maryam Saddaee and Majid Elahi

Considering the fact that customer satisfaction has changed into a strategic issue during the last decades. Companies cannot be show indifference towards customers` needs and expectations in a global economy in which customers are the key factor of companies` survival. The purpose of the present paper is to investigate customer attraction factors using strategic management techniques, conducted as a case study in Golrang Company. Cost-leadership, products distinction as well as behavioral and attitudinal factors satisfying customer are studied. The data are collected using questionnaire. ANOVA test and Pearson correlation coefficient are used to analyze collected data using SPSS software. The research findings show that there is a significant relation between customer attraction and other variables indicating customers` expectations from provided goods by Golrang Company.
Keywords: Customer satisfaction, behavioral and attitudinal factors, cost-leadership, products distinction, strategic management.

Using Image Processing to Present an Intelligent Method for License Plate Recognition

Marziyeh Bahrami and Morteza Zahedi Anaraki

One of the main applications for image processing and machine vision is scenes analysis based on image recognition. Recently, artificial intelligence is applicable method for image recognition. There are different systems have been used for license plate recognition and many activities such as traffic control and public parking and etc, supported by these systems. Recognizing the place of license plate and separating and recognizing the characters are three important steps to recognize the license plate. Additionally, low quality, intense lighting, imaging angular, different distance between vehicles and cameras, complex background and etc, are problems of new methods for license plate recognition. A new method in this research suggested for license plate place. Because of economical image processing performance, proposed method is more practical than similar methods. High operation and processing, installation and stability the microprocessors, recognition different license plates for a processing and image on color image with no size changes are features of new method. Issuing electronic fine, pay complications by intelligent system, control the tunnels, highways, parking, planning to control traffic are this method performance. In addition to use a kind of color edge detection to recognize the plate location, a blue band in this research has been used beside the Iranian license plate to reduce above items. Many different conditions and results presented to examine this method. The accuracy of this method is more than others. Performance, accuracy, reliability and speed of this method displayed by the results of data from images of speed control cameras in highways.
Keywords: License plate searching, color edge detection, color analysis and morphology, pattern recognition.

Socioeconomic Determinants of Prenatal-Care Utilization in Pakistan

Rana Ejaz Ali Khan and Sara Noreen

Prenatal-care is one of the important health-care elements determining maternal and infant mortality and morbidity. In this paper an attempt has been made to examine the socioeconomic determinants of prenatal-care utilization by Pakistani women in the age group of 15-49 years. Micro-data having 13594 observations from Pakistan Integrated Household Survey has been used in a series of models. The models are comprised of two components of prenatal-care utilization as: decision of prenatal consultation, i.e. either the woman has taken the prenatal consultation or not; and vaccination of maternal Tetanus Toxoid, i.e. either the woman received vaccination or not. In both models we have used binary logistic regression to see socioeconomic determinants of prenatal-care utilization. The explanatory variables have been categorized into individual characteristics of the woman, household characteristics and regional characteristics. The results explained that woman’ age, birth-order of child and number of children negatively affect the probability of prenatal consultation and TT vaccination. Education of the woman, provision of safe-drinking water and urban locality positively impact both components of prenatal-care utilization. The provision of electricity in the household as a proxy of socioeconomic status of the household has positive influence on the probability of prenatal consultation. An important result is that the women from Balochistan are less likely to take prenatal consultation and TT vaccination as compared to their counterparts of other provinces. The women from Khyber Pakhtonkhwa (KPK) are more likely to take TT vaccination.
Keywords: Woman health, Rural-urban disparity, Balochistan, Prenatal-care, Tetanus Toxoid Vaccination, Maternal health-care, child health-care, Woman’s education.
JEL Classification Codes: I10, J13, I18, O18

The Absence of Civil Society in Iran during The 2nd Pahlavi (1941 - 1978)

Mohammad Abolfathi, Faramarz Salehi, Ahmad Musivand and Heshmat Nurali

This article Presents the factors that prevent civil society in Iran during the Shah's time 1941-1978. In this paper, we are studying preventive factors such as dominant political culture within the political power structure during the Pahlavi and also incompetence political components which makes evolution if they exist led to the Making a civil society, within the construct of absolute Omnipresent and oppressive atmosphere of the Shah, who basically, by his weakness, fueled preventing the creation and growth of a civil society.
Keywords: Civil society, political parties, political culture, the discourse of modernity, democracy.

Relationship between Self Differentiation and Intention to Help Seeking among Iranian Women

Fatemeh Sadat Sobhanian

Aim of this study is investigating the relationship between self-differentiation and its components with the intention of help seeking. Statistical population was composed of all women living in Tehran. According to Morgan Table, 152 ones were selected as statistical sample among women in district 5 in convenience and voluntary way. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation and stepwise regression analysis. Results showed that there is positive significant relationship between differentiation and components of emotional fusion with others, emotional reactivity and I position with help seeking intention. However, relationship between emotional escape with help seeking is negative and significant.
Keywords: Differentiation, Emotional Fusion, Emotional Reactivity.

Therapeutic Effect of Tamsulosin on Uroflowmeteric Results in Patients with Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia
Ahmed Nazar Dhannoon and Luai Farhan Zghair

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) originates in the periurethral and transition zones of the prostate in a microscopic state as early as the third decade of life, And Uroflowmetery (UFM) is one of diagnostic investigation of BPH.Peak flow rate PFR is the most reliable variable value in detecting abnormal voiding in BPH. Tamsulosin is highly selective alpha blocker used in treatment of BPH. Our objective is To study the improving effect of Tamsulosin on peak flow rate PFR in patients with variable degree of outflow obstruction due to BPH.In which 93 patients with symptomatic (BPH) were subjected to the study, And divided in to three Groups A (mild),B(moderate),C(sever) according to American Urological Associations Symptoms Score Questionnaire (AUA). All the patients were tested by uroflowmetry and the average of pretreatment peak flow rate (PFR) for each group was taken, then patients given the medicine at 12 A.M for 10 days and postreatment Uroflowmetery with average PFR was taken each group the result shows, that in group A the average improvement in PFR was 5ml/sec , In group B the average was 3ml/sec ,while in group C the average was 1.5ml/sec. It was concluded that tamsulosin is effective drug improving PFR in patients with BPH of mild to moderate symptoms, while, it showed weak efficacy in improving PFR in patients with severe symptoms due to BPH according to AUA.
Keywords: Tamsulosin, Uroflowmetry UFM, Prostate, BPH.

Study the Impact of Brand Equity on Impulse Buying: Mediating Role of Product Attributes (Mobile Phone Industry)

Asadollah Kordnaeij, Seyed Hamid Khodadad Hosseini and Sarah Ahadi

The increasing amount of spending time in today’s society has created a new life style that has been integrated and accepted among consumers. More marketing dollars accrue over time to operations that can produce sales in the short time. As there is a tendency today towards the creation of value by brands identification, so the effect on consumer behavior help enterprises to formulate their marketing plan, it can influence impulse buying behavior which is one of the hedonically complex purchase behavior. Therefore in this study a survey was carried on 364 mobile buyers at the point of purchase, data collection took place in Iran to determine the impact of four dimension of brand equity on impulse buying behavior in mobile industry by mediating role of product attributes via two main hypotheses. Analysis of the data utilizing PLS, supported most of the predictions. The results of the survey indicate that three dimensions of brand equity (brand awareness, brand loyalty and brand association) influence impulse buying behavior in mobile industry and perceived quality doesn’t influence impulse buying behavior. It has also found that product attributes acts as a mediating role on relation between brand equity and impulse buying behavior in mobile industry.
Keywords: Marketing, brand equity, impulse buying, product attributes.

The Role of Environmental Graphics in Urban Spaces

Hamid Reza Zamani B, Mohsen Zeinali A and Soheila Hamidzadeh K

The role of environmental graphics in urban spaces Environmental graphics is a newly born branch out of different graphics branches which has been undergoing an increasing tendency due to the explosion in urbanization and it has found a great importance today. The main purpose of this paper is to lead city authorities to beatify the city with the easiest method and using fundamental forms, designs and coordinating them all together and the surrounding areas and the paper also aims at analyzing some problems which exist in urban spaces. This beautification can elevate social culture in the form of commercial, cultural, and advertising purposes, and even the daily life with different environmental forms such as: billboards, advertisements, and urban space, and using the items in this space like: benches, recycle bins, squares, transportation stations, and monuments and statues and it tries to find a coordination among all possible designs. This paper is an attempt to present the role of environmental graphics in the outdoor life and it provides general information about the environment and the graphics of that area for the ones interested in that and it also expresses the existing problems in the society with this approach and it, in the meantime, offers some solutions for that in order to live a peaceful life in the environment which we have made.
Keywords: Environmental graphics, urban spaces

Factors Influencing Prescribing Behavior in Cardiologists and General Practitioners (GPs) in Iran
Mehdi Mohammadzadeh, Hassan Bairami and Maryam Salehpoor

Background: Although the knowledge of prescribing behavior is a prerequisite for marketing of pharmaceutical products, yet a systematic scientific study showing the pattern of physicians’ behavior and the factors influencing them is largely unknown and the pharmaceutical companies need this information for their marketing plans. This study tries to survey GPs (General Practitioners) and cardiologists by using a questionnaire based on DISP conceptual model (Diagnosis, Influencers, Selection of drug, Prescription) adapted to Iranian physicians’ behavior. Method: A questionnaire was developed based on DISP conceptual model. This was then administered to a sample of 500 physicians (150 cardiologists and 350 GPs) at public and private clinics and hospitals in Tehran stratified by sex and specialty. The data was analyzed by SPSS. Results: According to result of questionnaire-basedsurvey, the important factors in both groups (GPs & cardiologists) were highlighted and ranked by importance. In addition, the style of prescribing behavior in GPs and Cardiologists in Iran were specified. Conclusion: The present study highlights the attitudes and factors influencing physician behavior in two groups (GPs and Cardiologists) and may be used in pharmaceutical companies and developing policies to improve marketing activities, the managers' choices and hence to increase clinical and promotional effectiveness and marketing efficiency.
Keywords: Prescribing behavior; Pharmaceutical marketing; Physicians prescribing behavior; Iran.

Impossible Crime in Contrast to Allowable Acts

Goudarz Niazi, Farshad Changaei and Hamed Rahdarpour

In front of impossible crime as incomplete crime there are allowable acts. For the reason that the acts have impossible results such as impossible crime, consequently, they are in practice mixed with impossible crime. However, the acts are indeed different from Impossible crime, because perform executive operations to Crime is first and essential condition to Impossible crime whereas there is not this condition to Allowable acts, for the reason that the accused in the acts do in principle not executive operations to Crime. Now it is necessary to separate them, because Impossible crime is punishable in the Iran’s Islamic Punishment Bill, whereas by the reason of do not perform executive operations to Crime, the Allowable acts are not in this manner.
Keywords: Impossible Crime, Allowable Acts, Incomplete Crimes, Impossibility, executive operations to Crime

Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B and C Viruses among Blood Donors in Fallujah Teaching Hospital Blood Bank, Iraq

Ismael Shallal Jubair, Khayoon Salim Abdullah and Ahmad Nasrat Al-Juboori

Blood transfusion is an important mode of transmission of infections to recipients. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of HBV and HCV infections and associated risk factors among blood donors in Major Blood Bank of Fallujah Teaching Hospital in Fallujah city, Al-Anbar, Iraq. This study was done during the period from April 2012 to May 2013. Blood samples were collected using cross sectional survey from blood-donors of Blood Bank of Fallujah Teaching Hospital. All blood donors were investigated for Hepatitis B surface Antigen (HBsAg) and Anti – Hepatitis C virus antibodies (Anti – HCV) by ELISA test. All the donors were males their age range between 16-54 years. Out of 4000 samples of blood donors, 41 (1.025 %) found to be seropositive for HBsAg and only five of the total ones found to be seropositive for Anti – HCV (0.125%). The risk of seroposivity for HBsAg and anti-HCV associated with the frequency of the donation. These results are close to, if they were compared with some other Iraqi governorates and some other neighboring countries and; therefore, frequent donation is the main risk factors for seropositive of both HBsAg and anti-HCV.
Keywords: Blood donors, Hepatitis B virus, Hepatitis C virus, Blood bank, Fallujah city.

The Effect of Explicit Teaching of Metacognitive Strategies on the Recalling of Collocations among Male and Female EFL Learners
Salim Mohajeri, Amir Reza Nemat Tabrizi and Nader Assadi

The present study investigates the effect of metacognitive vocabulary learning strategy instruction on the recall of collocations that are the bottle-neck of language learning for EFL learners. To this end, 75 male and female students were selected and based on the TOEFL test score at upper intermediate level were randomly assigned to control and experimental groups. Both experimental and control groups received the same type of collocation instruction, but the experimental group, in addition, received the metacognitive explicit strategy instruction. Meanwhile, the control group received a placebo treatment. A pretest measuring the subjects’ knowledge of collocations was administered. At the end, a two-way ANOVA was run to compare the two groups plus the effect of gender on such performance. The results indicated that treatment has an effect on the recall of collocations and also the male enjoyed better performance compared to the female.
Keywords: Metacognitive strategies, explicit strategy instruction, collocation, recall.

Studying Law of Disqualifying Arbitrators in Institutional Arbitration

Adel Taherkhani

Institutional arbitration is performed based on the arbitration regulations of the concerned institution. The parties to a suit bind themselves to arbitration procedure by submitting the claim to the arbitration institution and ask it to manage arbitration based on that procedure. Institutional nature of arbitration doesn’t damage principle of freedom of the parties to select the arbitrator and principally doesn’t mean violation of this specification but regulates it by determining rules of arbitrator selection and takes action while preventing delay in selection of the arbitrator or predicting alternative rules in case of disagreement of the parties to a suit on selection of the arbitrator or umpire and sometimes, the panel of arbitrators. In addition, disqualification of arbitrator is a method for providing and guaranteeing truth of the institutional arbitration when independency and neutrality of the arbitrator are doubted justifiably or the arbitrator is not qualified as agreed by the parties. This paper which was performed to study right of disqualifying arbitrator in institutional arbitration and with descriptive-analytical research method based on library data mentioned the arbitrator disqualification forum and its reasons by mentioning fundamentals of the institutional arbitration and disqualifying arbitrator.
Keywords: Institutional arbitration, disqualification of arbitrator, qualification of arbitrator, international law.

Strategies of Dealing with Psychological Stresses among Autistic Children's Families in a Jordanian Sample
Sameer Abdelkarim Ahmad Al-Rimawi and Ahmad Abdelhalim Arabiat

The current study aimed to identify strategies of dealing with psychological stresses among autistic children's families in light of income, educational level, gender and severity of disability variables. The sample of the study consisted of 163parents of autistic children (76 fathers and 87 mothers) whom were intentionally selected from autistic children's centers in Amman city/Jordan in 2011/2012. The tool of strategies to encounter psychological stress was applied on the participants after checking for its reliability and validity and its appropriateness for the purposes of this study. The study concluded with a group of results, among them: The mean of the participants' estimations on the tool was 2.96 with a standard deviation of 0.27. And it was shown that the fourth dimension " withdrawal " came first , followed by " commitment to religious values " , then " denial " , then came the dimension of " asking for emotional and social support " and finally came the dimension of " encountering the problem " . There were no significant statistical differences between the means of the participants' estimations on each dimension and on the tool as whole that are attributed to income variable. There also were no significant statistical differences between the means of the participants' estimations on each dimension and on the tool as whole that are attributed to gender variable. There were significant statistical differences between the means of the participants' estimations on the dimension of emotional and social support and attributed to education level variable and these differences were in favor of those with high studies degrees. There were significant statistical differences between the means of the participants' estimations on the dimensions withdrawal and denial and on the tool as whole and these differences are attributed to the variable of the severity of the child's disability and were in favor of the simple level of the disability while commitment to religious values was in favor of high level disability.