American Journal of Scientific Research

Issue 98
Jan, 2014

The Prevalence of Temporomandibular Disorders (Tmd) in Patients with Schizophrenia and Depression
Ehsan N Mesgarzadeh V, Falah M and Bolvardi A

The purpose of the present study was to compare the prevalence of TMD in patients with schizophrenia and depression who were hospitalized in the Golestan Medical Center in Kerman. Methods: This study was a cross-sectional survey. A sample size of 100 patients was determined using the Cochran formula. The research sample included 41 patients with schizophrenia and 59 depressed patients, all of whom were hospitalized in the Golestan Medical Center and randomly selected based on the following criteria: 18 years of age or older, absence of systemic diseases (rheumatoid arthritis, SLE, psoriatic arthritis), neurotic psychic subjects (the patients with schizophrenia were the controlled psychotic patients and the psychiatrist confirmed their reliability). Through interview, the dentist gathered the required data using the Fonseca index, the clinical dysfunction index and the Helkimo symptomatic index. To analyze the data, in addition to the descriptive statistics (classification and characterization data) Chi 2 test was used. Findings: The prevalence of TMD in patients with schizophrenia, according to Fonseca, clinical dysfunction and Helkimo symptomatic indexes was obtained, respectively, 47.5%, 82.9% and 61%. The prevalence of TMD in patients with depression, according to Fonseca, clinical dysfunction and Helkimo symptomatic indices was obtained 59.9%, 95.9% and 67%, respectively. The prevalence of TMD in schizophrenic male patients based on Fonseca, clinical dysfunction and Helkimo symptomatic indexes was 42.9%, 66.7% and 42.4%, respectively. The prevalence of TMD in depressed male patients based on Fonseca, clinical dysfunction and Helkimo symptomatic indexes was 88% , 96% and 86% , respectively. The T- test results of the two independent groups showed that the difference between the mean scores of depressed and schizophrenic men, based on symptomatic dysfunction (P value = 0.011) and clinical Helkimo indexes (P value – 0.05 ) and also based on Fonseca index (P value = 0.05) is significant and depressed men scored significantly higher than the scores of schizophrenic men, therefore it can be concluded that the severity of disorder in depressed men is higher than schizophrenic men. In women, the prevalence of TMD in female patients with schizophrenia based on the Fonseca, clinical dysfunction and Helkimo symptomatic indexes was 52.6%, 100% and 70%, respectively. The prevalence of TMD in depressed female patients based on the Fonseca, clinical dysfunction and Helkimo symptomatic indexes was 38.2%, 93.1% and 58.8%, respectively. As a result, in all three indexes, the prevalence of dysfunction in schizophrenic woman is greater than it is in depressed women. Results of a T - test for two independent groups revealed that the difference between the mean scores of depressed and schizophrenic women, only based on the Helkimo clinical dysfunction index, is meaningful and significant (P value = 0.049); according to the Fonseca index ( P value = 0.09), the difference between the mean scores of these groups is not significant. The results also indicated that with increasing age, the prevalence of TMD in patients with schizophrenia increases.
Keyword: Temporomandibular joint disorder (TMD), Schizophrenia, Depression.

The Role of the United States of America in the Caspian Region
Ahmad Mir and Gholamali Cheginizadeh

The U.S. is one of the major players of the new great game in Central Asia and the Caspian Sea. The main objectives of the U.S. in this area include security, political, and even economic interests, based of them Washington set its foreign policy agenda in Central Asia. Coping with terrorism, fundamentalism and extremism, causing the countries in this region to go away from the domination of Russia and come closer to the west, supporting the secular states, and controlling the region's oil and gas resources are the U.S. interests in Central Asia. In addition, inhibition of Islamism and the growth of Islam-seeking, controlling the influence of the Islamic Republic of Iran, inhibiting and weakening Russia and China, and strengthening the presence and influence of Zionist regime in Central Asia are other goals of the U.S. in this region. Accordingly, the present paper aims to answer to above-mentioned questions that will be discussed separately.
Keywords: The U.S.; Central Asia; Caspian; Oil and gas energy; Political, security, and economic objectives.

An Overview on Conflict of Laws in Contracts

Abbas Ahmadi and Mohammad Ahmadi

Today, the principle of party autonomy has been accepted in countries laws (e.g. Iran) and international treaties, predicted as a general law and supported by verdicts issued by courts frequently. In many countries, dual systems have been determined and entered into their law system in which the principle of party autonomy is respected and old theories and methods are maintained as well. Basically, parties have been authorized to determine the law governing the contract and other solutions are considered in case of making no choice. However, no law system accepts this principle unconditionally and it has been limited in different countries. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the conflicts of laws in contracts using library method and studying existing laws and principles analytically. The study attempts to investigate the conflict of laws by discussing about governing law of the contract, limitations of party autonomy principle, the way of determining governing law of the contract, examining related laws in Iran, and some other problems.
Keywords: Conflict of laws, contracts, law system, principle of party autonomy.

Concept Responsibility and Obligation in Islamic Law and Jurisprudence

Ahmad Reza Tavakoli

Islamic jurisprudence (Shia) has a different interpretation of religion. Religion in the Islamic Jurisprudence is overall financial and symbolic placed in the credit container called obligation on individual debtor. The relationship between ownership between the creditor and the overall financial established and such works ownership on the real property is associated outside it. What located in the obligation is transferability and sale. In other law schools mainly, religion a personal relationship the commitment to pay, between creditor and debtor. Responsibility in Islamic law is within a certain property of the out and until not delivered to the property deserved it is his own responsibility; this means that has a duty and obligation to deliver. Then dish task. The obligation is thought to facilitate a commitment and transport demand and different interpretations of such transfer and guaranty contracts.
Keywords: Obligation, responsibility, Conversion commitment, Religion, Obligation.

Relationship between Willingness to Communicate, Cognitive Awareness, and Language Proficiency in EFL Reading

Amir Reza Nemat Tabrizi and Sirous Mohammadi

Nowadays, the emphases on structural approaches which deal with linguistic patterns, memorization of vocabulary and grammatical structures of language have almost been vanished. Today, L2 researchers, curriculum developers, and teachers pay much attention to the psychological characteristics, and what happens in the mind of individual when learning takes place. The present study attempts to investigate any possible relationship between willingness to communicate, cognitive awareness in EFL reading proficiency in different levels (low, mid, and high). The data for this study was gathered from 117 intermediate and upper intermediate students who were studying English in different institutes in Islamabad-e Gharb, Iran. Raw information gathered in three steps. First, a version of Nelson reading test was piloted. Second, the researchers distributed a Nelson reading proficiency test in the main class, and in the last step, i.e. the next session, the researchers distributed a Likert type cognitive awareness questionnaire, and two likert type WTC questionnaires one for WTC in outside of the class, and one for inside of the class among the same students. Analyses of the data show high degree of reliability of the questionnaires (i.e.WTC, r=90 & cognitive awareness, r=85). It also indicates a strong correlation between WTC and cognitive awareness inside and outside of the class for low (r=.50, and .60) and mid (r=.43, and .51) level students (it is large effect size), but no significant relationships for high level students, i.e. R for inside the class and out of the class is.27, and .55 in sequence (it is moderate effect siz).

The Impact of Task Based Language Teaching for Commerce Students at Khanewal District

Iram Rubab Sial, Faiza Masood, Munwar Begum and Hina Hassan

The aim of the study is to highlight the competence of students in English language learning at Govt. College of Commerce of Khanewal. Data was gathered from students. Test section was comprised of control and experimental group. The tool for data collection was test: pre-test and post-test. First, pre-test was conducted then the researcher herself took the classes for three months. The control group was taught through traditional way while the experimental group was taught according to TBLT after that post-test was executed. Test was comprised of two sections: semantic level and discourse level. Sixty students were taken for test execution from which thirty were in control and thirty were in experimental group. Data was quantitatively analyzed by applying weighted average and chi-square and findings gave useful insights. In the light of these findings, Tasks Based Language Teaching has been recommended which is helpful for students. Similar study could be replicated on other parts of and in the same and also in other academic institutions.
Keywords: Communicative Language Teaching (CLT), English Language Teaching (ELT), communicative competence, Task Based Language Teaching (TBLT).

The Effect of L1, L2, and Pictorial Glossing on L2 Reading Comprehension Achievement of Pre–Intermediate Iranian Students
Ali Goldoust, Iraj Khoshnevis and Mehran Davaribina

This study investigates the effect of three types of glossing including L1, L2, and pictorial as well as no–glossing on L2 reading comprehension. A total of 66 Iranian pre–intermediate level learners participated in this study. They were randomly divided into four groups: no–glossing, L1 (Persian) glossing, L2 (English) glossing, and pictorial glossing. First participants were given Oxford Placement Test to make sure they are homogeneous in terms of grammar, vocabulary, and reading comprehension. A week later they were given pre–test in order to know whether or not participants know the meaning of the new words. For the next five sessions they were asked to read passages for a reading comprehension test. In the last session, all participants took a reading comprehension test as a post–test to see if there is any significant difference between groups or not. Results of one–way ANOVAs indicated that, there was a significant difference between no–glossing and glossing conditions with regard to gaining reading comprehension test score. There was also significant difference between reading comprehension test with L1 glossing and pictorial glossing group. Participants showed no significant difference between reading comprehension test with L1 glossing and L2 glossing group on the one hand and no significant difference between the L2 glossing and pictorial glossing group on the other hand.
Keywords: Glossing, Incidental vocabulary learning, Comprehension, Input modification.

Stigmatized Public Literacies an Ethnographic Study of Ads of Local Films, Graffiti and & Internet Chatting

Rabia Mahmood, Faiza Saleem and Fatima Zafar Baig

Contemporary trends of research in South Asia specifically and over the globe generally have shown a great tendency to the research that can contribute to the interests of wider public. Basing its premise on New Literacy Studies (NLS), this research explores some of those public domains that are considered stigmatized in Pakistani culture (hence Multan, a city in the southern Punjab). It aims at analyzing how these literacies although they are stigmatized yet being practiced publically, are loaded with ideologies. It also tries to probe the impact that these stigmatized public literacies are having on its general audiences. As this research involves the ecological approach of literacy, so it takes into account the cultural impact of practicing the prohibited literacies openly in the public. It is basically a dogma, a paradox that literacy practices that are considered a taboo in Pakistani culture, are being so openly practiced to the extent of becoming an integral part of everyday life of those people for whom it is stigmatized. This research provides food for thought for the users and consumers or whoever is directly or indirectly allied to these literacy practices and literacy events.
Keywords: Stigmatized, Public, Literacies, Literacy Practice, Literacy Event.

How do Different Variables Affect the Selection of Prototypes by Ardabil’s Students ofElementary Schools?

Hamed Ranjbar, Iraj Khoshnevis and Mehran Davaribina

This study explores the effect of four variables including; economic conditions of family, father’s level of education, geographical environment (living area), and sexuality on the selection of prototypes. To this end, a questionnaire with two parts was given to the 300 students at the sixth grade of elementary schools with different sexuality in north and south of Ardabil. First part of the questionnaire determined the sexuality, father’s level of education, income level, and living area of students. And second part determined the selection of prototypes. Chi–square test of SPSS run on the data obtained from questionnaires and the analysis of them showed that different variables such as economic conditions of family, father’s level of education, living area, and sexuality affect the selection of prototypes by students.
Keywords: Categorization, prototype, fuzzy set theory.

The Relationship between Self-Regulation and Iranian EFL Learners' Vocabulary Learning in Different Proficiency Levels
Amir Reza Nemat Tabrizi and Nooshin Forghani

Background: Although the knowledge of prescribing behavior is a prerequisite for marketing of pharmaceutical products, yet a systematic scientific study showing the pattern of physicians’ behavior and the factors influencing them is largely unknown and the pharmaceutical companies need this information for their marketing plans. This study tries to survey GPs (General Practitioners) and cardiologists by using a questionnaire based on DISP conceptual model (Diagnosis, Influencers, Selection of drug, Prescription) adapted to Iranian physicians’ behavior. The present article is an attempt towards investigating the relationship between self-regulation and Iranian EFL learners' vocabulary learning in different proficiency levels. To accomplish the task, Quick Placement Test (QPT) was administered to 120 EFL learners in order to determine the learners’ proficiency level. The learners then were asked to complete the Persian version of self-regulation questionnaire enjoying 0.88 reliability index along with a version of Nelson multiple choice-item vocabulary test. The Pearson correlation represented a meaningful relationship between self-regulation and Iranian EFL learners' vocabulary learning in different proficiency levels. The one-way ANOVA run also indicated that there is a significant difference among EFL learners' vocabulary learning in different proficiency levels with regard to their self-regulated learning.
Keywords: Self-regulated learners; self-regulated learning; self-regulation; vocabulary.

Mode Choice In Freight Transportation (Roads &Rail) Utilizing Fuzzy Hierarchical Analysis Method

Shahriar Afandizadeh, Mahmoud Ameri and Bahman Eshghi

Transportation demand modeling is basically a mechanism through which, large-extended data entry, including expansive range of consideration and various micro - macro domain of different levels, is integrated and analyzed, utilizing mathematical and statistical techniques, per numerical description of parameters, tentatively known as variables, due demand would be predictable for goods exchange within domestic territory. Exercised procedures in present article in addition to similar researches consist classical and strict fundamentals, whose accuracy has been already proved through assorted verifications within different periods and various styles, however, main point in current research testifies viewing competitive behavior between railway transport and road transport and identifying potential share of which in safe freight commuting. In the scope of competing within abovementioned systems, different procedures could be named, presently noted and ratified by the experts. However, the approach currently selected, mainly refers to procedures that have not yet been noted in parting carriage, known as using triangular fuzzy numbers for analyzing involved masters of transportation to better prioritize decisions made in choosing transportation method in goods exchange matrix. Fuzzy method is a new applied approach, not only holding scientific aspects, but also includes fundamental sufficient stability, using statistical reasons, leading to high verification in evaluating results. While, in the scope of demand identification, whole scale studies has planned nationwide, we've done our best to exploit assessment models, forecasting 9 main groups of commuted freights, future demand for overall 30 Iranian provinces estimated, based on which, notwithstanding national railway development, considering constancy of freight conveyed share in target year within said network, in numerical style, plying fuzzy procedures, actual and potential emulation of railway and road systems in year 2025S(1404 Iranian calendar), would be presented, hereinafter. Discussed procedure, mainly considering physical development of said networks together with increasing amount of goods exchange, will enable planners to designate goods attraction in abovementioned system.
Keywords: Mode Choice, FAHP, Freight, Fuzzy, Demand.

Investigation of Correlation between Fatigue and Shift Working among Workers in Bafq Iron Ore Company

Mortezavi Mehrizi Morteza, Halvani Gholamhossein, Fallah Hossein, Hobobati Hamid and Halvani Nilofar

Introduction: Feeling of fatigue is a common complaint among people and has destructive effects on their socio-occupational performance. Therefore, this study aimed at determining the correlation between fatigue and shift work among workers in Bafq Iron Ore Company. Methodology: The Persian version of Piper Fatigue Scale was offered in this descriptive and analytical study and the face and content validity of tool was calculated and approved by panel of experts; moreover its internal consistency was established and then a total of 388 workers of Bafq Iron Company were randomly selected for this study. The required data was assessed through collecting the inventory and based on scoring the questions and analyzed by using SPSS software. Results: Results indicate that the fatigue and its subscales are almost similar in different professions, but the mean score of fatigue is higher among the miners. Entertainment, travelling, and spending time with family are recommended as the best ways of resolving chronic fatigue. There is a statistical significant correlation between fatigue and its subscales with shift working and satisfaction with work shift. Discussion and Conclusion: Findings of this study indicate that the shift working can affect the fatigue and exhausted person will show a longer reaction time to external stimuli. Thus, risk factors will be increases in critical situations. Hence, the appropriate planning in line with satisfaction with shift working as well as the entertaining programs for workers will decrease the prerequisites of fatigue and exhaustion.
Keywords: Fatigue and exhaustion, Shift Working, Iron ore mines, Piper Scale.

Application of Airborne Pollutants Simulation Chamber in Teaching “Air Pollutants Sampling” Course to Occupational Health Students: Students’ Viewpoints at Yazd University of Medical Sciences
Fallah Hossein, Momayyezi Mahdieh, Barkhordari Abolfazl, Halvani Gholamhossein, Behjati Ardakani Mahdi, Hokm Abadi RajabAli and Soleimani Mehdi

Educational technology aids are significant factors in learning. According to the necessity and significance of air pollutants sampling course for occupational health students and the need for deep learning and the creation of motivation and interest in these students, this study was conducted to examine the rate of students' learning, motivation, and satisfaction with this course using airborne pollutants simulation chamber. A total of 53 occupational health students, who had enrolled for the “air pollutants sampling” course at Yazd University of Medical Sciences, participated in this descriptive cross-sectional study. A device called “air pollutants simulation chamber” was established for the first time and used as an educational aid for the practical part of this course. At the end of course, students' points of view were collected using a researcher-made inventory. Data was analyzed via SPSS 11.5 using descriptive statistics. Data analysis showed that the students' scores of general satisfaction with application of air pollutants simulation chamber were equal to 43.92 ±5.06. Furthermore, their scores of motivation and learning with the use of this device were 13.6 ±1.5 and 18.85 ±1.8, respectively. Approximately 47% of occupational health students, participating in this research, had a tendency to the use of this chamber in teaching 50-75% of practical part for air pollutants sampling course. Results of study revealed that the rate of occupational health students’ satisfaction, motivation, and learning the air pollutants course was acceptable by using the airborne pollutants simulation chamber. It seems that teaching method of this course may be revised and a part of course may be presented through recommended chamber.
Keywords: Simulation chamber, education, air pollutants sampling, occupational health students.

Examination of the Effect of Organizational Factors on Professional Ethics Case Study: Fani- Herfee Organization

Majid Molla Mohammadi Ravari and Mahdi Mahmood Abadi

Professional ethics is defined as moral responsibilities of organization that include all organizational dimensions. When individuals occupy organizational positions, some factors make them to manifest different behaviors whim in turn affect on organizational efficiency. As a matter of fact, technical and professional training due to their role in educating socially needed human force are a matter of concern. The present research aims, therefore, at identification of effective organization factors on professional ethics. The study is a type of developmental researches using a survey. The population consists of employees of Iran’s Fani –Herfee organization with total size of 380 subjects. A questionnaire was applied to collect the data and reliability and validity were tested via Cornbach’s alpha. The obtained data were, then, analyzed through multivariate regression and Pearson’s correlation coefficient. The results indicate that there is meaningful relationship beteen employees’ job satisfaction, participatory management style, and behavioral principles of organization with professional ethics. Also, no relationship was observed between organization goal and autocratic management style.
Keywords: Professional ethics, job satisfaction, management style, behavioral principles.

Production of Encapsulated Kilka Oil for Cheese Fortification
Seyed Reza Hejazian, Seyedeh Zeynab Hatami Takami and Razmik Beglaryan

Beneficial health effects of omega-3 fatty acids intake from marine sources are introduced for prevention of many diseases, however many people don't consume enough fish and seafood to meet recommendations. In this research, encapsulated Caspian Sea Kilka oil (ECSKO) as a good source of omega-3 fatty acids was produced with a small scale spray dryer that designed and made in a factory in Iran and then fortification of a cheese with(ECSKO) was performed to deliver an ‘excellent source’ of the omega-3 fatty acids EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid).
Keywords: Kilka oil, Caspian Sea, encapsulated, fatty acid, spray dryer